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为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第1张图片

© OMA. ImageIl Fondaco dei Tedeschi / OMA

建筑表现的趋势:了解表现的技术
Trends in Architectural Representation: Understanding The Techniques

由专筑网芮万里,李韧编译

建筑在建成之前缺乏有形空间,因此建筑在图纸上的表现就显得非常重要。

纵观一生,即使是热爱旅行,将大部分精力都投入旅行的设计爱好者,他们通过自己的眼睛所观察到的建筑作品也十分有限。

我们终将成为历史。有许多建筑作品也都仅仅只停留在图纸上,并不会被最终建成,同时我们每个人所真实感知体验到的建筑作品仅仅只是辽阔的建筑沙海中的一粒细沙。

因此,我们需要考虑建筑的未来。

对于还没有进行施工的建筑,它的表达并不要求多么奢侈精美,但是必须能够便于交流和宣传。

幸运的是,如今的设计师能够用前所未有的方式来描绘想法,技术爆炸时代为我们提供了计算机用以辅助设计,让我们能够拥有照片级别的渲染效果以及虚拟的现实模拟技术。

尽管技术的发展已经取得了巨大的进步,然而,建筑表达的工具不应拘泥于时间,我们应当将几个世纪以来已经存在的工具与21世纪的技术相结合。

下面,我们将会就建筑在施工前应该如何表达的问题给出五个解答。

The representation of architecture is important in the absence of tangible space.
Throughout a lifetime, even the most devoted, well-travelled design enthusiast will experience only a small percentage of architectural works with their own eyes.
Consider that we exist in only one era of architectural history, and the percentage reduces even further. Many architectural works go unbuilt, and the buildings we experience in person amount to a grain of sand in a vast desert.
Then we consider the architecture of the future.
For buildings not yet built, representation is not a luxury, but a necessity to test, communicate and sell an idea.
Fortunately, today’s designers have unprecedented means to depict ideas, with an explosion in technology giving us computer-aided drafting, photo-realistic rendering, and virtual reality.
Despite these vast strides, however, the tools of representation are a blend of old and new – from techniques which have existed for centuries, to the technology of our century alone.
Below, we give five answers to the question of how architecture should be depicted before it is built.


草图/Sketches

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第2张图片

Lina Bo Bardi的概念草图/Conceptual design by Lina Bo Bardi, courtesy of the Lina Bo Institute and Fr. M. Bardi .. Image Courtesy of Sesc Pompeia

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第3张图片

Image via ETEL

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第4张图片

Image via IAB-Rj

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第5张图片

Image © Sebastián Bayona Jaramillo

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第6张图片

Image © The villas of Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret (1920-1930)


建筑草图也许是每个建筑学学生进入学校后所接触到的第一种表达方式,它同时也是最实用的方式。

草图是一种快速表达技巧,它不仅仅表达了最基本的空间组成构思,而且在其中还融合了建筑师的个人风格。

The architectural sketch may be the first tool that every student comes into contact with in school, and possibly the most practical of them all.
Fast and expressive, the sketch not only conveys the basic idea of spatial composition but also contains the individual style of the architect.



平面/Plans

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第7张图片

轴测图/Axonometrics. Image Courtesy of West Line Studio

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第8张图片

Image © Hiroshi Nakamura & NAP

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第9张图片

Courtesy of RIGI Design

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第10张图片

Image © Felipe Combeau + Pablo Alfaro


设计平面图、剖面图、立面图以及轴侧图的绘制在整个设计过程中占据了大部分时间。

它们最大的优势是以特定的比例将建筑表达出来。

例如,一个单独的房间平面图通过笛卡尔坐标系、以一种最精确的方式表达了它的空间尺度,尽管大多数人都不太理解这种方式。

Producing plans, cuttings, facades and axonometric projections is a large part of the process of a project.
Its greatest advantage is presenting architecture in specific proportions.
For example, a single-room plan - despite showing the space in a way that is not intelligible to most people - is the most accurate way to define its spatial dimensions in the Cartesian plan.



模型/Models

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第11张图片

© Ariana Zilliacus

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第12张图片

Image © Jacqueline Faria [Twitter]

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第13张图片

Courtesy of Martin Massé

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第14张图片

Courtesy of Vicens + Ramos. Image Maqueta de Santa Monica Church / Vicens + Ramos

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第15张图片

Image Courtesy of Pezo von Ellrichshausen


模型作为对于图纸二维表达的补充,它提供了三维观察的可能性,一般来说,设计师们通过模型可以从各个角度观察整个设计项目在体量上的组成情况。

此外,由于模型的制造与建筑实际施工过程都受限于相同的物理规律,因此,模型同时也能够作为对于结构的理解与推敲的重要手段。

As representations that escape the two-dimensionality of the sheet of paper, models offer the possibility of observing, in general, the volumetric composition of the project from various points of view.
In addition, because it is subject to the same laws of physics to which the constructed work will be subject, the models can serve as an important tool for the structural understanding and conceptualization of the work.



渲染/Rendering

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第16张图片

上海滨水开发项目渲染图/Rendering of the Waterfront Development project in Shanghai (China) by schmidt hammer lassen architectsi. Image © schmidt hammer lassen architects

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第17张图片

Courtesy of HTA Design

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第18张图片

Courtesy of FALA Atelier

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第19张图片

Image Courtesy of Urban Future Organization and CR-Design

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第20张图片

Image © Alessandra Figueiredo and Flavia Bucartovsky


渲染(或3D可视化表达)通常是由二维构思形成的三维数字模型,以逼真的风格呈现建筑的真实效果。

这种方式可以预见未来建筑建成后的效果以及建筑与周边环境的关系。

同时我们也可以通过对图像参数进行操作,使渲染这种工具不仅仅用于创造逼真的画面,而且还可以形成梦幻般不可思议的场景。

Renders (or 3D visualizations) are two-dimensional compositions usually conceived from three-dimensional digital models and often in a realistic style.
This makes it possible to estimate the future of the work constructed within its context.
By offering us the possibility of manipulating the image, this tool is not only used to create realistic environments but also for fantastic and impossibly grand scenarios.



虚拟现实/Virtual Reality

为刚接触建筑学的你介绍五中建筑表现的技术第21张图片

Courtesy of Mi5VR

虚拟现实技术能够让我们完全进入尚未建成的建筑中。

基于三维数字模型以及Oculus Rift设备,虚拟现实技术将会使观察者“进入”到空间之中。

人们充满好奇的眼睛将不再局限于物理空间,它将进入到新建筑中,你无法感受材料的质感,但是你可以亲眼看见它,感受空间感。

Oculus Rift 的制造商宣称“眼见为实”,因此提供一种虚拟方式将观察者带入到尚未建成的建筑作品之中。

Virtual reality is the only tool that lets us be fully immersed in architecture that hasn’t been built yet.
Based on three-dimensional digital models and with devices like the Oculus Rift, virtual reality allows the observer to "enter" into space.
The wandering eye is no longer limited to physical space, it is part of a whole new architecture, immaterial, intangible, but visible.
"Seeing is believing," as the Oculus Rift manufacturers themselves announce, offering a way to virtually bring the observer into a work of architecture that doesn’t (yet) exist.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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