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时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第1张图片

时间仓库
Warehouse of Time / FT Architects

由专筑网邢子,李韧编译

来自建筑事务所的描述。建筑学类似考古学。
这座建筑是一座1896年砖砌仓库的重建项目。120年前它由Shimizu-ten(如今是日本最大的建筑公司之一)设计建造而成,主要用于储藏蚕茧,这是运用了当时最新技术的高端产品。从高质量的砖块以及它的铺设可以看出,这个9m×36m的大型无柱空间由柱撑式三角桁架构成,窗户可以进行自然通风,并且控制室内的空气湿度。这是日本历史上第一个达到与西方国家建筑相同品质的砖砌建筑。这个建筑最终作为宝贵的工业遗产入选国家文物建筑,而近期它将被改建为Honjo市社区中心。

From the architect. Architecture as Archaeology
This architecture is a renovation of a brick warehouse built in 1896. It was designed and built 120 years ago by Shimizu-ten (currently one of the biggest construction companies in Japan) to storage cocoons, which were high-end products and uses the latest technology at that time. It could be seen in the high-quality bricks and laying of it, the large column-free space of 9m by 36m achieved by a king post truss and the window fittings that could ventilate and control humidity. This was the first time in Japanese history that a brick building achieved the same quality built in the western countries. Eventually it became a national listed building as a valuable industrial heritage and a preservation and renovation project was planned to transform it to a community center for the city of Honjo.

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第2张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第3张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

早稻田大学团队就历史、结构、材料、城市以及灾害管理等多个领域进行了初步的研究,并从中了解到一些事情。现存建筑的砖墙以及木桁架仍然是重要的结构要素,但是结构在短边的屈服强度有些不足。另外,因为私人占有的原因,这座建筑虽然建成,甚至还经过几次的翻新,但却没有详细的图纸。由于这座仓库是120年前的老建筑,所以研究所得出的信息较为片面。经过研究小组与建筑方的合作,最终确定了项目的两个方向。一个是抗震加固,尽可能不去干扰砖砌以及木桁架的空间;另一个是做空间设计,我们考虑以实用性作为出发点,以此来陈述过去的事情。

A preliminary research was conducted by a team of Waseda University across various fields, such as history, structure, material, urbanism and disaster management and several things became clear. The existing architecture’s brick wall and timber truss were still acting as structural elements even today, but the yield strength on the short side was insufficient. Another thing was that, there were no detailed drawings when it was completed existing and several renovations were conducted since it was privately owned. The information gained from the research were fragments due to the warehouse being 120 years old. However, it became a valuable clue to determine the direction of the renovation. Through the collaboration of this research team and us architects, 2 themes for this project were determined. One is the seismic reinforcement not interfering with the existing space of brick masonry and timber truss as much as possible and another is the spatial design where we deal with the traces of the conversions pragmatically, as representation of the past events.

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第4张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第5张图片
平面图/Plans

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第6张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

为了与现有的建筑结构区分开,我们使用钢结构来进行抗震加固,而且预计能够达到与现代建筑相同的抗震性能。短边屈服强度的不足则通过水平元件来加强,例如将构件加强于上层楼板屋顶等完工后人们不易察觉的部位。如柱子等垂直元件则以最小尺寸来与现有砖墙相互支撑与联系,并同砖砌空间形成对比。老建筑加建是日本建筑中的主导方式,这样我们能够保留老建筑的结构形态与构架,新的建筑部分则主要体现在外观之中。对于我们在结构上进行评估以及利用现有架构的这种方法,在日本可以说得上是创新的做法。

The seismic reinforcement was done by steel structure, in order to clearly distinguish with the existing architecture and we aimed to have the same seismic performance as a contemporary architecture. The insufficient yield strength of the short side was reinforced with the horizontal elements such as the floor of the upper storey and roof, where it becomes completely unseen when completed. The vertical elements such as columns becomes the minimum size by mutually depending on the existing brick wall and appears as a contrast to the brick space. Scrap and build is the dominant culture in Japanese architecture and even if we were able to preserve old buildings, the existing structure is usually only used as a façade. It was innovative for us in Japan that we were able to structurally evaluate and utilize the existing architecture.

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第7张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第8张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第9张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

现存的建筑建于西方新式构造以及传统日本构造的折衷主义时期,这就导致了日本本地元素和西方结构元素的混合使用。例如,梁是根据日本传统模数“Shaku”建造,而柱子则根据西方模数“英寸”建造,其他的元素也有不同的模数算法,这就造成各个构件之间的尺寸并不完全一致,从而产生间隙。抗震加固构件则小心地嵌入这些不同尺寸的间隙中,使得今后也便于拆卸。

The existing architecture was built in the eclectic period of the new Western tectonics and the traditional Japanese tectonics, resulting in the mixed use of Japanese and Western order (dimension system). For instance, the beams are built in the Japanese traditional module “Shaku” whereas the columns are built in the Western module “inch”, and other elements are built in different modules, thus a gap occurs between them. The seismic reinforcement is carefully inserted in these gaps of different orders, so it is possible to detach them in the future.

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第10张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

改建根据功能与空间之间的变化,我们认为这并不是建筑的缺点,而这其中带有时间的印记。这并不意味着抛开过去。我们移除了不必要的已损坏部分,但并没有想要模仿或者重建得与原来完全一致。这种巧妙的处理方式是改建项目空间设计中最重要的一点。有时候空间经过改建后可能会变得奇怪,但是我们应当时刻牢记将它们变得更加坚固。

The traces of the conversions are the results of the gap between the change of the function and the space. We thought of them not as defects but as the representation of the accumulated events of the past. This doesn’t mean to leave the past renovations as it is. We removed the unnecessary and repaired the broken parts, but didn’t try to imitate or restore them to the original. This skillful handling was the most important point in the spatial design of the renovation. Sometimes it might become grotesque but we kept in mind more of the pragmatic firmness of them.

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第11张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第12张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

我们很高兴看到人们将这个建筑作为保护和翻新项目的原型,毕竟这个建筑的原始文件和施工预算都很少。它并不是要扭转时间的流逝,而是通过想象来将这些剩下的历史碎片补充完整,以此来重建历史,并且联系未来。这是通过考古学的方式来思考建筑,也是建筑师参与旧建筑改造工程的意义。当你实际参观这座仓库的时候,你会看到建筑师并没有将这座建筑改造得面目全非,然而,这恰恰是这个建筑最为幸运的地方。

We would be glad if people could think of this architecture as a prototype for preservation and renovation projects where there is few documents and little construction budget. It is not about reversing the flow of time, but reconstructing its history by connecting the historical fragments left through filling the gaps with imagination and connect them to the future. This is an archaeological way of thinking in architecture and here stands the meaning of architects to participate in renovation projects of old architecture. When you actually visit the warehouse, it would seem that the architect didn’t do anything. However, that is the most fortunate thing for this architecture.

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第13张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第14张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第15张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

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© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第17张图片
© Shigeo Ogawa

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第18张图片
位置图/Location

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第19张图片
平面图-剖面图前后/Plan Sections Before - After

时间在这座建筑中流转,历史从未消逝第20张图片
等距/Isometric

建筑事务所:FT Architects
位置:日本,琦玉县
主创建筑师:Katsuya Fukushima, Hiroko Tominaga
面积:711.0㎡
项目时间:2017年
摄影:Shigeo Ogawa
制造商:Mitsubishi Electric, YKK AP, Toli

Architects: FT Architects
Location: Saitama, Saitama Prefecture, Japan
Architects in Charge: Katsuya Fukushima, Hiroko Tominaga
Area: 711.0 m2
Project Year: 2017
Photographs: Shigeo Ogawa
Manufacturers: Mitsubishi Electric, YKK AP, Toli         


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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  • 赖特000
  • 2017.08.23 17:14
    “当你实际参观这座仓库的时候,你会看到建筑师并没有将这座建筑改造得面目全非,然而,这恰恰是这个建筑最为幸运的地方。”
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