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由传统文化衍生出的滨河界面第1张图片

针对复兴印度与恒河关系的大规模发展计划
Massive River Development Plan Hopes to Rejuvenate India's Relationship to the Ganges

由专筑网王子铭,李韧编译

总部位于新德里的Morphogenesis公司最近完成一个项目,其将恢复和发展印度最长的恒河流域沿岸210公里长的沿河阶梯及周边的火葬场。该项目的主题为“危急中的河流”,是国家清洁恒河任务(NMCG)的一部分。2011年,印度政府成立水资源管理部门,并承诺:确保河流污染的有效减少,并且加以保护,使其恢复活力。

Delhi-based firm Morphogenesis has recently completed a proposal for a project that will rehabilitate and develop the ghats (a flight of steps leading down to a river) and crematoriums along a 210-kilometer stretch of the Ganges, India’s longest river. The project, titled “A River in Need,” is part of the larger National Mission of Clean Ganga (NMCG), an undertaking of the Indian Government’s Ministry of Water Resources which was formed in 2011 with twin objectives: to ensure effective abatement of the river’s pollution and to conserve and rejuvenate it.

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

在印度仍然有9.66亿教徒将恒河尊为生命的女神,坚信河流的自治能力,他们将骨灰撒入河中,象征着生命的轮回,并且获得永恒的解放。但是,数以吨计的尸体被丢入河中,这些尸体并没有经过完全火化,加上工业废水和生活污水的随意排放,使得印度的母亲河成为世界上污染最为严重的河流之一。恒河养育着世界十分之一的人口,但是每年却有60万人因水传染疾病而死亡。随着印度城市密度的不断上升,全国人口密集,已经有两个城市位列联合国世界最密集人居城市名单中,甚至排名前八位,当地城市迫切地需要为社区建设和公众活动提供公共空间。

The Ganges is venerated as a living goddess by India’s 966 million Hindus who strongly believe in the river’s self-healing properties; to have one’s ashes scattered in the river is symbolic of achieving eternal liberation from the cycle of reincarnation. But the hard reality of dumping tons of incompletely cremated bodies, not to mention gallons of industrial effluents and raw sewage, has caused India’s national river to become the world’s most polluted. While the Ganges sustains a tenth of the world's population, it also causes an estimated 600,000 deaths annually on account of water-borne diseases. With increasing densification of Indian cities—two cities from the country already feature in the top eight of UN Habitat’s recent list of world’s densest cities—there also exists an urgent need to provide spaces for community building and public engagement.

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

为了解决这些紧迫问题,Morphogenesis的设计方案旨在利用可持续策略,重新设计河流与人居环境的历史性场所,同时将河流与城市发展相结合,为人们提供适当的公共滨河空间。

Morphogenesis’ urban intervention, in an effort to address these pressing issues, aims to sustainably redesign India’s historic interface between the river and human habitation, while simultaneously turning the city inside out to provide riverside civic spaces.

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

印度教的传统要求追随者在人生的几个重要阶段都与恒河有关,他们需要用河流的圣水来接收新生儿,还要通过Janeu(神圣的线路)开启仪式的信仰,抑或是个人的婚礼,再到最终的火化,都要通过恒河来举行。为了提供一种适应当地文化环境的解决方案,Morphogenesis公司意识到他们需要先学习和理解这种仪式的循环过程,例如人们将在哪里聚集、在哪里等待、在哪里哀悼、哪里会有庆祝活动等等,整个项目的最终目标是通过协调多方面的问题,再找到各种解决方法的共存方式,形成围绕河流的人居生活环境。

Hindu tradition dictates that its followers connect with the Ganges at several significant stages of their life, whether it’s the anointment of a newborn with the river’s holy water, the initiation into the faith through the Janeu (sacred thread) ritual, an individual’s wedding ceremony, or their eventual cremation at its banks. Morphogenesis recognized that in order to deliver a culturally contextual solution, they would first need to study and understand this ritualistic cycle: “where people will gather, where they will wait, where they will be mourning, where there will be celebration.” The firm developed their design with the ultimate goal of becoming one with the river—closing the circle of life around the Ganges through the sensitive coexistence of a varied program.

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

Morphogenesis公司在阿拉哈巴德和瓦拉纳西两座神圣的城市之间共33公里的河流沿岸和22座火葬场展开工作。在河流复兴的同时,其主要的设计问题则是河岸的侵蚀与淹没。该公司指出,由于传统火化习俗需要燃烧大量木材,造成河流沿岸大面积的森林毁坏,导致水土流失,部分流域将退化为淤塞的泥潭。

Morphogenesis worked on a total of 33 ghats and 20 crematoria along the stretch of the river between the holy cities of Allahabad and Varanasi. While looking at the rejuvenation of the river, prime design concerns included the erosion of the river bank and flooding. The firm noted how deforestation along the river-bank, resulting from the need for wood for traditional pyre cremations, had scoured the land-water edge and reduced it to a “silted quagmire.”

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

针对这种情况,Morphogenesis公司用混凝土管道来加固河岸,同时他们将重新设计火葬场及燃烧装置,降低传统习俗中木材的使用数量,其中节省下的成本甚至高于普通家庭一年的收入,这种操作不仅节约能源,保护环境,而且能够带来附加的社会效益。

This directed Morphogenesis to propose hume pipes to stabilize the bank, while they redesigned the crematoria—and the pyres themselves—to reduce the amount of wood needed to just thirty percent of the traditional requirement. This provided the added social benefit of lowering the cost of cremation, which the firm found was often higher than the annual income of a household.

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

而后公司运用因地制宜的研究手法,来努力寻找治理河岸的方法。建筑师通过加固河岸的边缘,从而为人们提供了一个与河流亲近的场所,河流沿岸是自然发展的必然选择。Morphogenesis公司的设计利用不同类型的平台来解决各种功能问题,大至各级水运交通,小至日常的仪式及不同规模的演出活动。

The firm turned to a study of the vernacular in an effort to find ways to treat the riverfront: Ghats were the natural answer since they lend themselves to stabilizing the river-edge while providing an interface for human engagement with the river. Morphogenesis' design of the ghats combined the use of several typologies of platform to account for diverse functions: extended ones to access water-transport at all levels, smaller ones for daily rituals, and large performance stages for events.

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

所有活动的用水方式都受到一定程度的限制,从而减少水体的污染。各种平台由柱廊支撑,减少对河流的影响,同时设计者也在举办仪式的池塘附近设置了不同的小房间来满足多种功能。

The provision is such that all activities use water in a controlled way, hence leading to reduced pollution: Platforms were designed to be supported by colonnades to make sure that the river flow remains uninterrupted. In addition, changing quarters were provided close to the ritual bathing pond.
   
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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

河流沿岸上的各种活动均按照不同的层次进行组织。这种层次基于水面的高度而定,其中,洗浴空间占据最低的阶梯,公共空间和基础设施则被设置在安全的高阶处,而举办仪式的场所则夹在两者之间。该公司还利用可行可坐的阶梯座椅结构,加以在不同的水平高度种植具有弹性的植物,为人们提供更多社区互动的场所。设计中还融合了灵活的零售空间,来确保场地每天的商业销售额。

The ghats’ varied program is organized sectionally—different levels cater to different activities. This segregation is based on flood-levels: While bathing spaces occupy the lowest rung, public gathering spaces and amenities are conceptualized at safe higher levels, with ritual spaces sandwiched in between. The firm reintroduced the historic Chaupal seating structure—gurus would deliver lectures to their pupils under the shade of a tree—to provide for places of community interaction; reforestation employed resilient plants that worked with the varying levels. The design also incorporates informal and pop-up temporary retail to make sure that ghats remain active through the day and the year.
   
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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

为了更好地配合传统的宗教功能,Morphogenesis公司设计了一种可以无线上网的新装置,服务于城市空间的文化知识传播,同时河流沿岸可以利用太阳能发电,满足河岸提供饮用水和连接互联网的能源消耗。太阳能电池板则被安装在“智能色谱柱”顶部,同时这也作为一种遮阳装置为人们提供更好的休憩场所。此外,设计者还利用当地的可持续材料来减少对生态环境影响,例如在砖结构外利用多孔石作为饰面铺地,使水渗入地面来保持水土的湿润度。

In an attempt to add to the ghats’ traditional religious function, Morphogenesis designed the new developments to be wifi-enabled; the firm envisions the ghats as important urban spaces for discourse and dissemination of knowledge. The ghats will also run almost entirely on solar power: Solar panels are installed atop “Smart Columns,” which act as shading devices while simultaneously fulfilling the essential functions of providing drinking water and internet connectivity. Furthermore, locally-available and low-maintenance materials were used to reduce ecological impact: the flooring will utilize porous stone to enable water to percolate through, while the structures will be predominantly built in brick.

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis

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Image Courtesy of Morphogenesis


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