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Peter Zumthor 重构洛杉矶艺术博物馆  
Peter Zumthor reconceives a Los Angeles art museum   


Lecture about LACMA,Peter Zumthor
关于洛杉矶艺术博物馆的讲座
(c)Museum Associates/LACMA


全新的LACMA
It has embarked on a different course


博物馆已取代寺庙和教堂,成为升华灵魂和聚集大众之地。人们纷纷被吸引来参观慕名已久的艺术作品、引人入胜的装置、或者轰动一时的展览,同时博物馆也充当了交际、购物和用餐的场所。作为文明社会的象征,博物馆影响着一座城市的定义,并有效地吸引着游客前来观赏。为搏眼球而展开的竞争异常激烈,催生了博物馆的疯狂建造,其中不乏明星建筑。这也往往走向极端。过去五十年中,纽约博物馆的规模曾经三度翻倍,以接待蜂拥而至的参观者,如今场馆的规模俨然一座机场,令人生畏。

Museums have displaced temples and cathedrals as places of spiritual uplift and public assembly. People are drawn to see a celebrated art work, a spectacular installation, or a blockbuster exhibition, but museums have also become places to socialize, shop and eat. As symbols of civilized society they help define a city, and are a potent draw for tourists. The competition for attention is fierce, and that has provoked a frenzy of growth and star architecture.  Often it goes too far. New York's Museum has doubled in size three times over the past fifty years to accommodate crowds and now has the intimidating scale of an airline terminal.

Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第1张图片

Overall view(Post) | 海报全景
(c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner/ The Boundary


洛杉矶艺术博物馆(LACMA)踏上了与之不同的道路。它在52年前成立,先后扩建了5次。拥有135000 件艺术作品——成为美国西部规模最大的收藏之地。现在,已决定采纳普利兹克获得者Peter Zumthor的重建提案,取代功能失调的核心建筑。“从一开始,我就很想和一个能够深入思考的人对话,能够反思、冒险、前进和后退,我也知道这会是一个漫长的过程。”Govan解释道。  

The Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) has embarked on a different course. It was founded only 52 years ago and has expanded five times. It owns 135,000 art works — the largest encyclopedic collection in the western United States. Now, the decision has been made to replace the dysfunctional central core with a new building of approximately the same size designed by Pritzker Prize laureate Peter Zumthor. Instead of holding a competition, LACMA director Michael Govan selected the architect and worked with him for several years. "From the beginning, I was interested in a dialogue with somebody who would think deeply enough to reverse expectations, take risks, move forward and backwards, and I knew it would be a long process," Govan explains.
   
Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第2张图片

Plan view | 平面俯视图
(c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner/ The Boundary



自然的光影
Natural light


挑战在于创建一座整体统一的建筑,且让人感觉通透和可亲近。它必须关联西面Renzo Piano设计的轴结构的两个画廊,北面的公园,东面Bruce Goff设计的梦幻般的日本展示馆,以及南面车水马龙的Wilshire大道。为了避免遮蔽附近的沥青坑,乳齿象的骨骼将被重新修复,规模延伸到了大道的对面。

The challenge was to create a building that would be a unified whole, and feel transparent and accessible.It had to relate to Renzo Piano's axial composition of two top-lit galleries to the west, a park to the north, Bruce Goff's fanciful Japanese Pavilion to the east, and  heavily trafficked Wilshire Boulevard to the south. To avoid overshadowing the neighboring tar pits, the mastodon bones will be recovered, the site was extended to the opposite side of the boulevard.   

Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第3张图片

LACMA(Aerial)| 洛杉矶艺术博物馆航拍
(c)Museum Associates/LACMA


Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第4张图片

Japanese Pavilion(East)  | 日本展馆,Bruce Goff设计
(c)Museum Associates/LACMA


“我喜爱在自然光影下的家庭式空间里的亲密邂逅。”Zumthor观察道。“当我在布雷根茨美术馆做[玻璃墙] 的时候,别人告诉我艺术家不会喜欢这个,但结果是他们现在仍然轮番在那里举办展览。在LA这个项目中,地面层呈开放式,单独一层的展示空间则由7座楼塔支撑。在外围的空间,阳光直射不到,并且坐拥LA的全景。在中间区域分布着集群画廊、袖珍画廊和自带天窗采光的高塔画廊。如此便创造了可供人环绕的核心,而不是一个个纵向排列的矩形画廊。环绕其间人流动线更加自由;正如在城市中发掘新事物的体验。

"I love intimate encounters in domestically scaled spaces, with natural light and shadow," observes Zumthor. "When I did the [glass-walled] Kunsthalle in Bregenz I was told that artists would hate it, but they are still lining up to have shows there. Here, the ground level is left open and a single level of exhibition space is supported on seven towers. The peripheral spaces are shaded from direct sunlight and offer a panorama of LA. In the middle are cluster galleries, pocket galleries and tall tower galleries with clerestory lighting. That creates nuclei which you circulate around, rather than an enfilade of orthogonal galleries. There's a free choice in the circulation; a sense of discovery, as in a city".   Gallery with clerestory | 画廊的天窗 (c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner  

Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第5张图片

Gallery with clerestory | 画廊的天窗
(c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner


“当我构想出这个带有内部庭院的有机形态时,我开始找到感觉”。Zumthor继续解释道。“由于它建在焦油坑旁,我们称它为黑花。这个自由形态允许我参考每个侧面——一座没有背面的建筑。但当它不得不穿越Wilshire大道时,它将不再是一朵花。我放弃有机形状,并构想出更加都市化的形态。黑色被德克萨斯石灰岩的矿物色调所取代。我使用了一种单独的材料——木板标记混凝土——有着密集的、自然的特性。”

  "I started to feel good when I developed this organic form with inner courtyards, " Zumthor continues. "We called it the black flower since it sprang up next to the Tar Pits. This free form allowed me to make a reference to every side — a building with no back. But when it had to span the boulevard it could no longer be a flower. I abandoned the organic shape and developed a more urban form, and the black gave way to themineralic tone of Texas limestone. I've used a single material— board marked concrete — which has a dense, elemental character".


关注建筑的通透性
Transparency


为了赢得竞赛,建筑师还未充分了解背景信息且对场地仅做匆匆一瞥之后,就给出了夺人眼球的设计。有时候,正如悉尼歌剧院或毕尔巴鄂古根海姆博物馆,他们的目的则是创造受人喜爱的地标。更多时候,这种设计与客户或社区的长期需求并不一致,并且它的缺点也会逐渐显露出来。正如Govan认为的那样,设计一座艺术博物馆不存在一个所谓正确的方法。“我们讨论的不是关于这座建筑的外观——那是Peter的工作——而是关于通透性,以及将小博物馆的亲密感与大博物馆的震撼感相结合,” 他说。“与卢浮宫或芝加哥艺术学院相比,这样的规模是可控的。你可以选择直线路线,正如在学院派美术馆中一样,但人们更有可能选择弯路。这座建筑物是向后卷曲的,所以你可以随意漫步,回到一处熟悉的地点,知道自己还需要走多远。”  

To win a competition, architects create an arresting design that is often based on indequate information and the briefest experience of the site. Sometimes, as with the Sydney Opera House or the Bilbao Guggenheim, their vision turns into a beloved landmark. More often, the design is at odds with the long-term needs of the client or the community, and gradually reveals its shortcomings. As Govan insists, there is no one right way to design an art museum. "Our discussion was not about how the building would look — that's Peter's job — but about transparency, and combining the intimacy of a small museum and excitement of big," he says. "In contrast to the Louvre or the Chicago Art Institute, the size is manageable. You could follow a linear course, as in a Beaux Arts museum, but it's more likely that people will make detours. The building curls back on itself so you can wander and come back to a familiar place, and you know how far you have to go."  

Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第6张图片

Meander in detours | 弯道漫步
(c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner/ The Boundary


“Peter的设计打破了城市的网格,与或矩形或自由形态的周边环境相关联,” Govan继续说道。“每个尽头都有楼梯和电梯,在南端有一个剧院横跨Wilshire大道。塔的底座空间可以容纳不同功能,包括咖啡馆、书店、培训和Rifkin绘画中心。公园的互动性和开放性得到了恢复。可以去的地方变得多种多样,这一点特别好,比如户外雕塑、爵士音乐会、餐馆、椰子林。我们想要保持我们所创造的这样一个属于洛杉矶的‘起居室’”。  

"Peter's design breaks the grid of the city and relates to its orthogonal and free-form neighbors," Govan continues. "There will be staircases and elevators at either end, and a theater on the south end across Wilshire Boulevard. The base of the towers serve different roles — café, bookshop, education, and the Rifkin drawings center. Permeability and openness are returned to the park. What's best is the variety of places to go — outdoor sculpture, jazz concerts, restaurant, palm grove. We want to keep what we've created — a living room for Los Angeles".  

Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第7张图片

Wilshire Boulevard | Wilshire大道
(c)Museum Associates/LACMA


Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第8张图片

Park | LACMA的公园
(c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner


Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第9张图片

Restaurant(North )| 北部的餐厅
(c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner/ The Boundary


“博物馆的各种可能性使我兴奋不已。这个场域足够大,可以在固定和灵活之间找到平衡。给予我最深感触的体验是在石头墙砌成的老建筑里,它们的功能已经改变,也难以搬移,你囿于历史中。你要了解空间的特质,以及在一天的不同时间段里光线是怎样进来的。馆内收藏的展品有一半是不感光的。新的集群画廊之间的空间光线暗度恰好可以呈现纸质的作品,与侧光下的雕塑相映衬。  

"What excites me about museums is the range of possibilities. This campus is big enough to strike a balance between fixed and flexible. Some of the deepest experiences I've had have been in repurposed old buildings with stone walls that don't move, where you are constrained by history. You learn the character of the space and how the light comes in at different times of day. Half the objects in our collection are not light-sensitive. The spaces between the new cluster galleries are dim enough for works on paper, complementing sculpture that's side-lit."  

Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第10张图片

Gallery | 画廊
(c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner/ The Boundary



流通的建筑
The patterns of circulation


以往博物馆体验的单调乏味在于每间房间都是整齐划一的,容易让人感到审美疲劳。我和Peter 倾向于对艺术作品进行疏落和密集交替的陈设方式,以赋予空间能量和韵律。这七个博物馆将有它们自己的特性。我们建议Peter 设计可以旋转展品的空间。缓慢的旋转和小而临时的展示。在传统博物馆,当你关闭中央画廊的时候,相当于封锁了整个楼层。在这里,如果我关闭这七个馆当中的一个,并不影响其他区域的流通形式。去等级化的文化策略让策展人得以在有限的时间内展现尽可能多的故事。

"What is monotonous about the museum experience, and makes people feel tired, is the evenness of each room.Peter and I share a bias towards the alternation of spareness and density in the installation of art works, to impart energy and a rhythm. Each of these seven museums will have its own character. We asked Peter to design spaces in which we could rotate objects. Slow-motion rotation and small temporary exhibitions. In a traditional museum when you close down the central gallery, you close off the whole floor. If I rehang one of these seven it doesn't affect the patterns of circulation. A non- hierarchical arrangement of cultures allows the curators to present many stories over a period of time."   

Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第11张图片

Section cut | 剖面图
(c) Atelier Peter Zumthor & Partner/ The Boundary


洛杉矶艺术博物馆已经筹得了一半以上的资金,有望于2019年开始建造,并于2023年开放。

LACMA has raised more than half the funding and hopes to begin construction in 2019 and open in 2023.

Peter Zumthor为证,洛杉矶艺术博物馆是下一个毕尔巴鄂式传奇?第12张图片



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