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人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第1张图片

芬兰珊纳特赛罗市政中心|Säynätsalo Town Hall. Image © Fernanda Castro

聚焦:阿尔瓦•阿尔托
Spotlight: Alvar Aalto

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

阿尔瓦•阿尔托(1898年2月3日–1976年5月11日)是芬兰现代主义建筑的代表人物,以其人道主义的现代建筑作品而闻名。,阿尔托的建筑作品不仅在芬兰地区影响深远,甚至对整个北欧地区都产生了深刻影响,他的天才之处不止在于其建筑设计,还包括室内布置,例如家具、照明、灯具、艺术品等。

As one of the key figures of midcentury Modernism and perhaps Finland's most celebrated architect, Alvar Aalto (3 February 1898 – 11 May 1976) was known for his humanistic approach to Modernism. For his characteristically Finnish take on architecture, Aalto has become a key reference point for architecture in the Nordic countries, and his commitment to creating a total work of art left many examples of his design genius not only in buildings but also in their interior features, including furniture, lamps, and glassware design.

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第2张图片

via Wikimedia (public domain)

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Muuratsalo实验屋 |Muuratsalo Experimental House. Image © Nico Saieh

阿尔托出生于芬兰中部的Alajärvi,在Jyväskylä渡过他的童年时光。他从赫尔辛基工业大学毕业后,于1923年在Jyväskylä创立了自己的工作室,名为“阿尔瓦•阿尔托——不朽的建筑师与艺术家”。其早期作品带有北欧古典主义的特征,阿尔托与同是建筑师的Aino Marsio结婚后,他们在南欧渡过了他们的蜜月之旅,从那时起,他们开始逐渐对现代主义建筑产生了兴趣。

Aalto was born in Alajärvi in central Finland and raised for most of his young life in Jyväskylä. After completing his studies at the Helsinki University of Technology, in 1923 he founded his own practice (named "Alvar Aalto, Architect and Monumental Artist") in Jyväskylä. His early works were characteristic examples of Nordic Classicism, but when Aalto married fellow architect Aino Marsio, the pair took their honeymoon in southern Europe where they became more familiar with the work of their Modernist contemporaries.

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第4张图片

维堡图书馆|Viipuri Library. Image © Denis Esakov

在30年代早期,现代主义风格对阿尔托的建筑作品产生了一定的影响,例如帕米欧疗养院和维保市立图书馆等建筑都明显带有功能主义的特征。然而,在这个阶段,阿尔托的设计作品“始终有着与纯粹功能主义相背离的特点”,因为他的作品多了许多的地域性特征。在30年代晚期,阿尔托的作品开始带有明显的个人主义色彩,成为当时北欧最具影响力的建筑师,其作品注重材质的表达与现象学策略,直到现在,这些手法在当地的建筑作品中仍然随处可见。

By the early 1930s, this modernist influence found its way into Aalto's own architecture, with projects such as the Paimio Sanatorium and Viipuri Library making up what is usually referred to as Aalto's "Functionalist Period." However, even at this stage of his career, Aalto's design "consistently displays a calculated tendency to depart from pure functionalism" with elements that were more regionally specific. As a result, by the end of the 1930s Aalto's work had evolved into a more synthetic and personal Modernism. He became one of the first and most influential architects of the Nordic modern movement, laying the foundation for the focus on materiality and the phenomenological approach that can often be seen in architects from the region.

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第5张图片

芬兰珊纳特赛罗市政中心|Säynätsalo Town Hall. Image © Wikimedia user Zache licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

阿尔托的许多最伟大作品都是公共建筑,例如图书馆、市政厅、教堂,其作品Säynätsalo市政厅是那座小城镇上的一座多功能建筑。由于其显著的个人特征,阿尔托的建筑作品并不像柯布西耶或密斯的作品那样遍布全球,他的大部分建筑集中于芬兰及其周边的北欧国家。但国外也有少量项目,其中知名度最高的也许是美国麻省理工学院的贝克公寓大楼。

Many of Aalto's greatest works were public buildings, including libraries, town halls and churches, and his Säynätsalo Town Hall is regarded as a masterclass in multipurpose civic architecture for a small town. Due to his more regionally-specific style, Aalto did not work internationally as much as contemporaries like Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe, and most of his buildings were completed in Finland and surrounding North European countries. However he did still complete a number of significant projects abroad, perhaps most notably MIT's Baker House Dormitory in the United States.

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麻省理工学院学生宿舍贝克公寓|MIT Baker House Dormitory. Image © Wikimedia user Daderot licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

阿尔托的作品与本质上的现代主义建筑有一些不同,1941年也许是其职业生涯的一大转折点,知名建筑评论家Sigfried Giedion在其现代主义建筑的调查研究《空间、时间、建筑》中对阿尔托的作品进行了一番评论,但是,他对于现代主义建筑的立论也存在着争议,在1976年出版的著作《Architettura Contemporanea》中,作者Manfredo Tafuri和 Francesco Dal Co也批判阿尔托的作品“有着过分夸张的历史痕迹”,并且认为他的作品并没有他所表达的那么纯粹,同时也“不适用于现实世界的发展”。美国建筑评论者Kenneth Frampton在其1983年发表的一篇文章“批判的地域主义”(“ Towards a Critical Regionalism”)中表示,阿尔托的Säynätsalo市政厅是抵制现代主义建筑过于同化的一大代表,Frampton写道,建筑师“很明显地想要通过表达来平衡建筑之间的关系,并且以直观的方式与当时忽略地域传统环境的西方建筑相抗衡”。

Despite his relative disconnectedness from the rest of the Modernist movement, Aalto's reputation was sealed in 1941, when his work was prominently featured in architectural critic Sigfried Giedion's seminal survey of modernist architecture Space, Time and Architecture. However, his inclusion in the Modernist canon was not without controversy; in their 1976 book Architettura contemporanea, Manfredo Tafuri and Francesco Dal Co argued that his works' "historical significance has perhaps been rather exaggerated," and that they were little more than "masterful distractions, not subject to reproduction outside the remote reality in which they have their roots." A more nuanced view of Aalto's architecture emerged in Kenneth Frampton's 1983 essay Towards a Critical Regionalism, in which Aalto's Säynätsalo Town Hall is cited as an example of architecture that resists the homogenization of Modernism. In its tactility, writes Frampton, it "endeavors to balance the priority accorded to the image, and to counter the Western tendency to interpret the environment in exclusively perspectival terms."

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沃尔夫斯堡文化中心|Wolfsburg Cultural Center. Image © Samuel Ludwig

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第8张图片

© Nico Saieh

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第9张图片

© Nico Saieh

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第10张图片

© Nico Saieh

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第11张图片


人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第12张图片

© Samuel Ludwig

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第13张图片

© Samuel Ludwig

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第14张图片

© Franco Di Capua

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第15张图片

© Samuel Ludwig

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第16张图片

Image Courtesy of The Finnish Committee for the Restoration of Viipuri Library

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第17张图片


人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第18张图片

Courtesy of Flickr user Wotjek Gurak

人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第19张图片

Courtesy of Flickr user Wotjek Gurak


人物聚焦:如慈父般温和的建筑大师——阿尔瓦•阿尔托第20张图片



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