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社区的建筑该由谁决定?第1张图片


伦敦南部的红砖住宅
Bell Philips adds red brick social housing block to south London estate

由专筑网王帅,李韧编译

Bell Philips建筑事务所在20世纪60年代伦敦南部住宅区设计建造了27座砖房住宅,这是在相应居民主导型社会住房计划。

这是两座带有倾斜屋顶的塔楼,一座为七层,另一座为五层。两座塔楼通过三层高的建筑连接,上面有一座公共屋顶露台。

全新大楼外表堆砌着红色的砖,Marklake Court大楼内包含一室、两室、三室和复式公寓。这些公寓的租金都较为经济。

Architecture studio Bell Philips has added 27 brick homes to a 1960s estate in south London as part of a resident-led social housing scheme.
Two sloping roofed towers, one seven storeys and the other five, are connected by a three story building topped with a communal roof terrace.
Clad in sympathetic red brickwork, the new building of Marklake Court brings a mix of one, two and three bedroom apartments and maisonettes to to the Kipling Estate, which have been made available at council equivalent rents.

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第2张图片


该项目由Leathermarket社区福利协会(CBS)负责,他们请Bell Philips事务所进行设计。CBS是萨瑟克区(Southwark)住房组织LeatherMarket JMB的开发部门。Bell Philips事务所之前为Greenwich委员会开发了一种供老年人和残疾人士使用的低成本砖阶式养老院。

项目使用了一片原先用于车库的梯形地块,Leathermarket社区福利协会以1英镑的价格购买了125年的租赁权,同时他们还支付了建造费用。

Bell Philips were brought on to design the project by Leathermarket Community Benefit Society (CBS), the development arm of Southwark housing organisation Leathermarket JMB. The architecture practice had previously developed a social housing model for Greenwich council, designing cost-effective brick terraced homes for elderly and disabled people.
A trapezoid-shaped plot of land occupied by disused garages was identified as a potential infil site, and a 125 leasehold was obtained from Southwark Council for just £1. In the end, the council also covered the cost of the build.

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第3张图片


Joanna Vignola是当地居民,也是社区的领导成员,他告诉Dezeen的记者:“我们开设了一系列专题讨论会,邀请居民们为自己设计建筑。”

在讨论会上,Bell Philips咨询了人们想从这个计划中得到的东西,同时为居民提供互动模型,让他们体验建筑形态。

"We did a whole series of workshops where people were invited to design it themselves," Joanna Vignola, an estate resident and leading member of the community trust told Dezeen.
In the workshops Bell Philips asked people what they wanted from the scheme, bringing interactive models for residents to experiment with shapes for the building.Aldwych Theatre

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第4张图片


Bell Philips事务所的联合创始人Hari Philips告诉Dezeen的记者:“通过早期的讨论,诞生了很多想法。”

“有些建议非常具体,有些人说他们不喜欢开放式厨房,而其他的东西没有过多要求。人们说他们想要一座永恒的建筑,一座引以为傲的建筑,一座和场地相互结合的建筑。”

"Those early conversations a lot of ideas came out," Hari Philips, co-founder of Bell Philips told Dezeen.
"Some were quite specific, about people saying they didn't like open plan kitchens, but other things were more intangible, people saying: 'we want a building with a sense of permanence, a building we can be proud of, a building that feels part of the estate.'"

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第5张图片


建筑师们还组织了一系列地区的环游活动,从中充分感受居民的真正所需。

Philips说:“人们普遍不喜欢薄金属包层的新建筑。”

“他们想要一座砖砌的建筑。他们对维多利亚时代的仓库和当地的历史建筑情有独钟。我们了解这一点,从而设计了一座符合长期审美的建筑。”

The architects also organised a series of walks around the area to gauge what the estate residents wanted from the new development.
"People reacted quite badly to new buildings with thin metal cladding," said Philips.
"They wanted a building that was made out of brick. They really liked the Victorian warehouses and historic buildings of the local area. We tried to pick up on that and make a building that feels like it's going to be here for a hundred years."

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社区的建筑该由谁决定?第7张图片


诸如街道入口处的锯齿状砖工元素细节,都参考了当地的建筑结构。精致的多角度阳台可以防止暴露隐私,同时也增加了邻居们在路上交流的机会,大多数公寓内都能看到公园的景色,以及由伦佐·皮亚诺设计的伦敦碎片大厦。

开发经理Igloo与Leathermarket住房组织合作研究过住房需求问题。一些老年家庭、住宅面积过于窄小的家庭以及流动性居民都被优先安置在住房上。

Philips解释说:“这带来了一系列的好处,人们可以重新分配新住宅。至少有100多个家庭从该项目中收益。”

Brickwork elements, such as the sawtooth details around the doorway of the street entrance, were included to reference the local architectural fabric. Precisely angled balconies prevent overlooking, while giving neighbours opportunities to communicate across the way, and most of the homes have views over the park or of the Renzo Piano-designed Shard.
Development managers Igloo worked with Leathermarket to undertake a housing needs studies. Older households under-occupying homes, families cramped into too-small apartments, and residents with mobility issues were prioritised for the homes.
"That's had a chain of benefit where people are then reallocated new homes. Over 100 families benefitted overall in the end from that sequence," explained Philips.

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第8张图片


社区的建筑该由谁决定?第9张图片


27套新公寓的设计考虑了使用者的需求。设计师为那些流动性强的人设计一层小公寓,而中央部分安置了一套大型公寓。

Philips补充道:“这就像一个拼图游戏,几乎每座公寓都独一无二,它们有二十种不同的类型。于是我们就像拼图一样把它们组合在一起。”

Each of the 27 new homes were designed with their new tenants needs in mind. Ground floor maisonettes were planned for those with mobility issues, and a particularly large family flat was slotted into the central section.
"It was like a jigsaw puzzle working out how we could put it all together," added Philips. "Pretty much every flat is unique, there are twenty different types."

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第10张图片


Bell Philips事务所为居民们提供了样品,让他们自己挑选地板、瓷砖和面板的组合和颜色,同时组织居民们参观了其它项目,直接在现场看到成品,逐步让他们了解开放式厨房的优点。

居民的现场参和地方委员会的支持,成为项目成功的关键因素。

Bell Philips brought in samples for residents to pick their own combinations and colour-ways for flooring, tiles and worktops and organised tours of other developments to see the finishes in situ – and win them round to the merits of open plan kitchens.
It was this level of resident involvement, along with the support of the local council were key factors to the projects success agreed those involved.

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第11张图片


Philips说:“而地方委员会都希望建造经济适用房。他们拥有土地,但是没有充足的资金。我们在这块土地上增加了建筑的密度,这是社区的发展成果,他们对我们的行动很满意。”

Vignola补充道:“该项目凝聚了人们的渴望,它让社区居民感觉到了自己的力量。”

JMB计划在全国各地为其他住房协会举办讲习班,他们想把Marklake Court作为范本。同时Bell Philips事务所正在附近一个地产协会开发40座住宅单元。

"Ultimately councils want to build affordable housing. They're under resourced, but they have the land. We got more density on this site because the community did it themselves. Because they felt happy with the moves that we made," said Philips.
"It coalesced from what people wanted. It's made the community feel empowered," added Vignola.
JMB plan to run workshops for other housing associations around the country that want to use the Marklake Court model as a blueprint. Bell Philips is currently working on a 40 unit development for the same housing association in another estate 10 minutes down the road.

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第12张图片


Marklake Court是伦敦战后罕见的成功案例。伦敦东部Alison设计的野兽派公寓和Peter Smithson设计的 Robin Hood庄园在2017年拆除,从而开发新地产,新项目中有一半都为经济适用住宅。

去年,伦敦西部一座20世纪60年代的大厦起火,最终造成72人死亡。部分原始是这座建筑在曾经翻修时使用了易燃板材,从而导致火势的不断蔓延。

摄影:Killian O'Sullivan

Marklake Court is a rare success story for London's postwar housing estates. The brutalist blocks of the Alison and Peter Smithson-designed Robin Hood estate in east London were bulldozed in 2017 to make way for a new estate, of which only 50 per cent will be affordable.
Last year also saw tragedy strike the Grenfell estate in west London when a 1960s tower block caught fire, killing 72 people. Grenfell tower had recently been refurbished and clad in combustable panels that have been partly blamed for the rapid spread of the fatal fire.
Photography is by Killian O'Sullivan.

社区的建筑该由谁决定?第13张图片


社区的建筑该由谁决定?第14张图片


项目信息:
客户:Leathermarket社区福利协会
开发经理:igloo Community Builders
建筑设计:Bell Phillips建筑事务所
项目管理:RPS
承包商:Buxton
规划顾问:Tibbalds
成本顾问:Measur
结构工程:HRW Engineers
服务工程:Hoare Lea
CDM协调:DBK

Project credits:
Client: Leathermarket Community Benefit Society
Development manager: igloo Community Builders
Architect: Bell Phillips Architects
Project manager: RPS
Main contractor: Buxton
Planning consultant: Tibbalds
Cost consultant: Measur
Structural engineer: HRW Engineers
Services engineer: Hoare Lea
CDM co-ordinator: DBK

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