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Kalì教学空间
Kalì Pavilion / Irene Librando and Nadia Peruggi

由专筑网李韧,王雪纯编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:Kalì是非盈利项目,建筑位于加纳阿善堤乡村地区,功能为中学教室。该项目由20名国际志愿者与当地工人共同合作完成,耗时3个月,设计方为Irene Librando and Nadia Peruggi事务所,建筑师们设计了一座可持续生土与木结构单元。该项目赢得了由Nka基金会发起的“重塑非洲生土建筑”设计建造挑战,于2018年9月至12月建造完成,造价为9000欧元。

Text description provided by the architects. Kalì is a no-profit project which led to the construction of a junior high school classroom in the rural village of Okorase (Ashanti Region, Ghana). A group of 20 international volunteers worked 3 months with the local manpower to build a sustainable raw earth and wood unit, designed by Irene Librando and Nadia Peruggi. The project won the “Reinventing the African Mud House” design-build challenge by Nka foundation and was realized in between September and December 2018 with a budget of 9000 euros.

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非洲撒哈拉以南地区的传统建筑一般以诸如生土、木材、茅草等当地材料为原料建造,是可持续与传统的象征,但是这种传统建筑正在逐步消失,当地人看来,它们有些过时。但是,城市中的现代化设计与工业材料迅速发展,这些现代化信息无法适应撒哈拉以南地区的环境与经济状况。

Traditional architecture in sub-Saharan Africa has always been based on local materials such as earth, wood, thatch. It is a great symbol of sustainability and traditions, but it is slowly disappearing  because seen, even between local populations, as poor and obsolete. Indeed more and more often “modern” designs and industrial materials are taking place in the uncontrolled urban speculation that a lot of sub-Saharan countries are suffering, in a way that is not environmentally and economically suitable to these places.

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Nka基金会的主要目标是让生土建筑拥有新特点,让年轻设计师们能够通过创新的方式来理解乡土传统建筑。项目设计理念是重塑传统建筑,证明当地技术的潜在能力,并且证明这样的方式能够以经济的角度更好地表达可持续理念。建筑师的目标是与当地社区共同合作,让人们了解到传统技术与现代理念能够融合在一起,是高效可持续的设计方案。

That’s why the main target of Nka foundation is to give a new role to raw earth constructions permitting young designers to interpret vernacular architecture in an innovative way.  The idea is to re-design traditional buildings in order to demonstrate that local techniques, like raw earth ones, are still the best way to build in terms of economy and sustainability. Our goal has been to collaborate with the local community to let them realize that an harmonious union between traditional techniques and improving ideas can be the best solution to build a performant and long lasting construction.

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而这在Okorase特别重要,在这里Nka基金会与当地非政府组织RADeF共同合作,为学校建造空间。建筑师们在村落之中,在这里,孩子们每天都需要步行9公里顶风冒雨地区学习,因此有很多人宁愿回家种地也不愿意接受教育。

This has been especially relevant in Okorase, where Nka started to collaborate with the local NGO RADeF to build the spaces needed for a junior high school. We are in a village where kids had to walk 9 kilometres everyday under sun or rain to continue school after the primary one, so where most of them have preferred going to work in cocoa plantations instead of keep studying.

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在项目组筹集到9000欧元资金的8个月之后,项目组还征集了一批国际志愿者来到这里,与当地生土工人共同合作,在90天里,应用133立方米的红土和3公里的木材,为孩子们建造了这间66平方米的教室,施工主要为手工过程,因为这里没有电力供应。

After eight months during which we fundraised 9000 euros and gathered a group of international volunteers, we arrived in Ghana and, with some workers specialized in raw earth construction techniques, in 90 days built a classroom of 66 m2 for the children of Okorase, using 133 m3 of red earth and 3 km of wood, respectively rammed and planed by hands since electricity wasn’t available.

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加纳当地最重要的艺术形式便是彩色织物,这些织物重要应用在传统服装之中。建筑师以此为基础,构思了模块化空间,这里有着渐变的光影效果。

One of the most important art forms in Ghana is the production of colourful fabrics, used mostly for traditional clothing.  We based our design on the typical woven fabric, thinking of a space that is modular and can provide a graduated shade.

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教室长度的四分之三由两面生土墙体而限定,墙体长度8米,高度3米,教室里可容纳学生桌椅,教室前侧由木材建造,为了让黑板区域能够有充足的照明,使用者可以通过由传统蜡织物制作而成的一系列帐篷来进行光线调节。

Three quarters of the length of the classroom are defined by two rammed earth walls, 3 meters high and 8 meters long, and accommodates the student desks, while the front is completely made in wood, in order to get an illuminated space for the blackboard, which can be modulated by a series of tents, made from traditional wax fabrics.

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生土墙体、屋面、木质屏风不仅仅构成了教室的空间,同时还能够调节小气候。无论雨季还是焊机,当地的温度都在20到40摄氏度之间,因此在最炎热的天气,还能让孩子们保持专注是一件很重要的事。

The earth walls together with the lifted roof and the wooden screens not only generate the space of classroom, but are crucially important for its microclimate. Whether we are in the rainy of dry season, the temperatures in the Ashanti region oscillate between 20 and 40 degrees Celsius , and letting the kids study in a space that is still fresh in the hottest hours of the day is extremely important for their concentration.

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生土墙体能够吸收阳光热量,降低室内温度,而木质屏风则有助于自然通风,让冷空气进入建筑下部,让热空气从建筑上部排出。在屋顶下方,建筑师还设置了一层手工草垫,将空间与教室上部的铁片层分隔开。

The walls absorb solar light preventing the inside space to get too hot, and the wooden screens permit natural ventilation to have its course by letting enter cold air in the lower part of the building while the lifted roof lets the hot air outside, in the spaces between the trusses. Under the roof, it has been also added a layer of handmade thatch mats, that helps insulate the space from the iron sheets used to cover the classroom.

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最后,建筑师还创新地利用了无法回收的材料,志愿者收集了3000多个塑料袋,在当地,这些塑料袋用于饮水,最后只能焚烧,志愿者将它们清洗干净,在建筑侧面制作了一系列屏风,从而构成了学生们的排球网。

Finally, we also aimed to find innovative ways to use the waste that cannot be recycled in the village. That was accomplished together with our volunteers, which collected more than 3000 plastic bags (the one used in Ghana to drink water and that usually end up being burned), washed and used them to make some screens for the side of the building (in between the trusses) and also a volleyball net for the elementary school.

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这座建筑满足了功能需求,兼具现代特征与传统特征,是志愿者和当地工人共同合作的结果,这结合了专业技能与知识,同时服务于大众。

The result is a space that in its simplicity meets the functional needs of the school, being modern and at the same time autochthonous, an outcome of a give-and-take relation between volunteers and local people, that put together their skills and knowledge for the benefit of the community.

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建筑设计:Irene Librando e Nadia Peruggi.
地点:加纳 阿善堤地区
类别:Sustainability
主创建筑师:Irene Librando e Nadia Peruggi.
面积:710.4 平方英尺
项目时间:2018年
摄影:Irene Librando, Nadia Peruggi, Lucile Bitz, Antonella Mennella
志愿者:Maria Giovanna Pisciotta, Marco Romano, Camilla Minieri, Silvia Dipino, Grazia Pota, Antonietta Faia, Elda De Vita, Lucile Bitz, Aukje Worm, Kübra Şahin, Veronika Powles, Anna Cavenago, Antonella Mennella, Giulia Sacco, Alba Pesacane, Federico Bardese, Fabienne Mühlbacher.
当地工人:Abass, Tawiah, Edward, Adamu, Abu, Issifu, Julius, Agyengo, Safo, Bonsu, Agbe, Yaovi, Christian, Kwame.
当地协调:Frank Appiah Kubi e Adjei Manu Kennedy (RADeF), Adu Boahene (Okorase community). Manufacturers / Products

Architects: Irene Librando e Nadia Peruggi.
Location: Okorase Village, Ashanti Region, Ghana
Category: Sustainability
Lead Architects: Irene Librando e Nadia Peruggi.
Area: 710.4 ft2
Project Year: 2018
Photographs: Irene Librando, Nadia Peruggi, Lucile Bitz, Antonella Mennella
Volunteers: Maria Giovanna Pisciotta, Marco Romano, Camilla Minieri, Silvia Dipino, Grazia Pota, Antonietta Faia, Elda De Vita, Lucile Bitz, Aukje Worm, Kübra Şahin, Veronika Powles, Anna Cavenago, Antonella Mennella, Giulia Sacco, Alba Pesacane, Federico Bardese, Fabienne Mühlbacher.
Local Manpower: Abass, Tawiah, Edward, Adamu, Abu, Issifu, Julius, Agyengo, Safo, Bonsu, Agbe, Yaovi, Christian, Kwame.
Local Coordination: Frank Appiah Kubi e Adjei Manu Kennedy (RADeF), Adu Boahene (Okorase community). Manufacturers / Products

        
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