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© Wikimedia user Stanislav Traykov licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

废弃建筑的8个典型案例
8 Extraordinary Examples of Abandoned Architecture

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

纵观历史,不断变化的经济、灾难、政权更迭等各种原因都导致了建筑结构的变化。从1986年乌克兰的切尔诺贝利核电站爆炸导致的苏联大面积区域无法居住的事件,到见证美国一些火车站的发展逐渐走向衰落的公共交通,废弃建筑的历史性触动了所有文化层面的聚焦。另外,如果不对这些建筑进行定期维护,建筑结构就会恶化,徒留下曾经风靡的辉煌历史,下面介绍了8座被自然摧毁的废弃建筑:

Throughout history shifting economies, disasters, regime changes, and utter incompetence have all caused the evacuation of impressive architectural structures. From the 1986 explosion at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine that rendered a region of the then-Soviet Union uninhabitable, to the decline in public transport that saw a number of US train stations becoming superfluous, the history of architectural abandonment touches all cultures. And, without regular maintenance, structures deteriorate, leaving behind no more than awe-inspiring ghosts of the past to fuel the ever-growing internet trend for "ruin porn." Below are 8 abandoned buildings slowly being reclaimed by nature:


1. 保加利亚纪念碑

8座被时光掩埋的建筑第2张图片

© CC BY-2.0

这个建筑被称为“保加利亚的UFO”,这野兽派飞碟形的纪念碑于1974至1981年间由共产主义保加利亚军队所建立。圆形结构结合大底盘,作为节日活动的场所。此外,室内陈列了大量的壁画,以纪念马克思和列宁。随着1989年共产主义领导者托多尔•日夫科夫的去世,这座建筑也年久失修。尽管整体结构仍然存在,但东欧不断的冻融循环导致屋顶遭受了巨大的损坏,无论是修复还是拆除都太过困难,以至于这座建筑现如今仍然在场地上颤颤巍巍地矗立着。

1. Buzludzha, Bulgaria
Nicknamed “Bulgaria’s UFO,” this brutalist saucer-shaped monument to communism was erected by the Bulgarian Army between 1974 and 1981. The domed structure held a large seating area that served as a venue for celebrations and state functions. Additionally, the room’s interior was slathered in murals that celebrated Marx and Lenin. After the communist party helmed by Todor Zhivkov fell in 1989, the building fell into disrepair. Although the structure still stands, the constant freeze-thaw cycles of Eastern Europe have caused large holes to form in the roof. Both restoration and demolition are too conflicting to undertake, so the building continues to wither away on the mountaintop.


2. 日本,羽岛

8座被时光掩埋的建筑第3张图片

© CC BY-2.0

日本羽岛是距离长崎海岸9英里(14公里)的小型岛屿,是一个小而密集的煤炭开发产业岛屿。该岛有着黑暗的历史,在30年代和40年代,很多中国和韩国的工人们被迫从事采矿工作。直到二战后这种做法才结束,并在1959年在羽岛安置了5200人,但由于煤炭储量枯竭,日本在二十世纪后半期的工业化发展迅速从煤炭转向石油,因此对矿工的需求逐渐下降,1974年这里的采矿工作已经终止。

2. Hashima Island, Japan
Hashima Island is a small but dense coal mining development 9 miles (14 kilometers) off the coast of Nagasaki. The island has a dark history, with much of the mining work carried out in the 1930s and 40s done by Chinese and Korean forced laborers under brutal conditions. However, after WWII this practice ended, and in 1959 Hashima Island housed 5,200 people, making it by some accounts the most densely populated place on earth. But as Japan’s rapid industrialization shifted from coal to petroleum during the latter half of the 20th century, the demand for miners quickly fell as coal reserves were exhausted. By 1974 work in the mines had ceased and Hashima was abandoned shortly after.


3. 英国Maunsell海上堡垒

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© Wikimedia user Russss licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

为了保卫不列颠群岛免受德国空军的袭击,土木工程师Guy Maunsell提出了海上防备系统。这个想法通过泰晤士河口一系列防空哨兵塔而实现,这些建筑于1942年建成,1952年停止运用,海上堡垒的启用时间虽然短暂,但其功能却至关重要。虽然于1958年这些堡垒的军事功能完全废除,但在20世纪60年代末仍然用于播放一些未经审查的电台广播。

3. Maunsell Sea Forts, United Kingdom
In order to defend the British Isles from the formidable German Luftwaffe, civil engineer Guy Maunsell proposed taking the fight to the sea. This idea played out in a series of anti-aircraft sentry towers held together by a series of catwalks a few miles off of the mainland in the Thames Estuary. Built in 1942 and decommissioned a decade later, the sea forts had a relatively short but crucial service. Although the project was officially left to rust in 1958, the sea forts were briefly used to broadcast rogue, uncensored pirate radio broadcasts in the late 1960s.


4. 乌克兰Pripyat Amusement公园

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© Wikimedia user calflier001 licensed under CC BY-2.0

1986年5月1日是苏联的国庆日。不幸的是,就在“五一”之前的4月26日,切尔诺贝利核电站发生了核泄漏, 这距离Pripyat amusement公园的开放日期仅剩不到一周的时间,整个镇也因此被空置,这座新的摩天轮从来没转动过。31年后,它已经通体生锈,杂草丛生。

4. Pripyat Amusement Park, Ukraine
May 1, 1986 was supposed to be a jubilant national holiday for the Soviet Union. Unfortunately, “May Day” was preceded by the meltdown of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on April 26th—less than a week before Pripyat’s new amusement park was planned to open. The town was vacated and the radioactive Ferris wheel never served a patron. 31 years later it still stands rusted, overgrown, and frozen in time.


5. 西班牙Canfranc火车站

8座被时光掩埋的建筑第6张图片

© Wikimedia user Alberto Pascual licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Canfranc国际火车站是欧洲最大的火车站,近半个世纪以来成为西班牙和法国之间的重要交通工具。该火车站是1965年的电影《Doctor Zhivago》里的主要场景之一。但是在1970年的一列火车脱轨,摧毁了通往法国车站的一座桥梁,从此这座火车站便不再使用。尽管车站本身目前破败不堪,但Canfranc的地下火车隧道仍处于使用中。2006年西班牙物理学家在这里设置了一个Canfranc地下天体实验室。凉爽的隧道环境和现有的可移动列车轨道为他们提供了一个天然的实验空间。

5. Canfranc Rail Station, Spain
In 1928, the Canfranc International Railway Station was the largest rail station in Europe, serving as a crucial connection between Spain and France for nearly half a century. The station was extensively used as the set for the 1965 film Doctor Zhivago. Alas, in 1970 a train derailed and destroyed an approaching bridge on the French approach to the station, rendering the terminal useless. Despite the current dilapidated condition of the station itself, Canfranc’s subterranean train tunnels have remained useful. In 2006 Spanish physicists opened the Canfranc Underground Astroparticle Laboratory under the existing station. The cool tunnel environment and existing movable train tracks provide an oddly apt lab space.


6. 美国密歇根中环火车站

8座被时光掩埋的建筑第7张图片

© Wikimedia user Albert duce licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

这是座豪华的艺术火车站、酒店和写字楼,也是当时世界上最高的火车站。随着汽车工业进入黄金发展时期,底特律的铁路产业开始衰退。在60年代和70年代,该火车站逐渐失去了盈利来源。1988年,随着最后一辆火车的离开,这个客运站结束了为旅客服务的生涯。2000年,这座建筑作为一个货运火车站而恢复营业,但这只持续到了2004年。尽管这座大楼前途未卜,但密歇根中环火车站的业主最近仍然为它更换了各个窗户。

6. Michigan Central Station, United States
This grand Beaux Arts train station, hotel, and office tower opened in 1914 as the tallest train station in the world. As the motor city entered its golden age, Detroit’s rail industry began to falter. Through the 1960s and 1970s, the site was engulfed by interstates, and the station kept losing profitable lines. In 1988 the final Amtrak train left the station marking the end of the building's service as a passenger station; in 2000, the building resumed service as a freight train station, but this only lasted until 2004, and the station has been abandoned ever since. In spite of the building's uncertain future, the current owners of Michigan Central Station recently completed an initiative to replace the building's windows.


7. 台湾Sanzhi Pod小屋

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© Wikimedia user yeowatzup licensed under CC BY-2.0

台湾新北市的Sanzhi Pod小屋最初的设想是作为一个有趣的模块化度假屋。该项目从1978年初开始动工,但一直处于预算超支阶段,施工进度严重落后。因为许多工人在小屋建成运营之后不久就接连去世,所以这些小屋也被当地人们认为是“鬼屋”,在2008年都拆除了。

7. Sanzhi Pod Houses, Taiwan
The Sanzhi Pod Houses were initially envisioned as a playful series of modular vacation houses just outside of New Taipei, Taiwan. The project was marred from its start—construction began in 1978 and was perpetually over budget and behind schedule. The houses were deemed “haunted” by the public as a number of workers on site died shortly after opening. The forward-thinking pods were never continuously occupied and were unceremoniously demolished in 2008.


8. 美国,布法罗中央码头

8座被时光掩埋的建筑第9张图片

© Wikimedia user Bruce Fingerhood licensed under CC BY-2.0

这又是一座具有艺术气息的火车站。布法罗中央车站于1929年开业,在城市鼎盛时期,每日为当地提供了多达200辆的来往列车。随着制造业不断发展,汽车变得越来越受欢迎,这个车站在1979年被迫停止运营。多年来,这座大楼一直不曾投入使用,直到最近Central Terminal Restoration公司购买了这座大楼。他们打算把这座车站恢复到昔日的辉煌,但这种想法令人望而生畏。

8. Buffalo Central Terminal, United States
It’s little surprise that the list includes another art deco rust belt train station. Buffalo Central Terminal opened in 1929 and served up to 200 daily trains during the city’s heyday. As manufacturing was continuously outsourced, and automobiles became ever more popular the station was forced to fold in 1979. For years the building was left to wither until recently when the Central Terminal Restoration Corporation purchased the terminal. They intend to restore the station to its former glory—an endeavor as daunting as it is admirable.


更新:这篇文章最初提到的在羽岛工作的强迫劳动力。我们更新了文本,以反映这一历史事件,并清楚地说明该岛屿列入这一名单的原因,即该岛在历史上的极端人口密度。ArchDaily为这一疏忽所造成的冒犯而道歉。

Update: This article originally neglected to mention the history of forced labor on Hashima Island. We have updated the text to reflect this history and to more clearly explain the reason for the island's inclusion in this list—namely, the island's extreme population density in its more recent history. ArchDaily apologizes for this omission and any offense it caused.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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