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经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第1张图片

印度Mausam住宅
Mausam - House of the Seasons / ZERO STUDIO

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

项目背景

该项目的预算较低,同时也是低造价以及反映传统元素的代表作品。在经济全球化的背景之下,不同社会地位的人们对于各项思潮与信息都有所涉猎。对于大众来说,优秀建筑作品的形象在人们脑海中已经形成了一个定向思维。印度作为发展中国家,许多人都有这样的思想观念,认为建筑往往代表着业主的财力状况,尤其是住宅建筑,大多数人都希望自己的住宅看上去既气派又豪华。然而,在喀拉拉邦这样的地方,当地的建筑师已经逐渐开始利用乡土材料与传统技术来表达与气候等因素的联系。这类建筑盛行于中东和欧洲,大多数的建筑作品也代表了业主的品位。事实上无论哪种风格,富豪阶级的人们通常会优先在住宅中使用空调以及其他自动化系统设备,而那些住着廉价房屋的人们无法使用到这些豪宅的“专有设备”,他们常常抱怨自己的家并不舒适,一座花费了自己大半辈子积蓄的住宅却那么炎热,这样的房子并不会让他们感到有实现梦想的欣喜。

The Context
More than being low budget, this house is the outcome of a realization that architecture need not be expensive and brand new. In the wake of globalization, when ideas and information are just a click away and are followed by a larger audience falling to different layers of the society, the image of what is good architecture has been stereotyped to a major extent. In developing countries like India, this is rooted in a notion that there is a certain kind of architecture that represents the financial status of the user especially in the case of residences where mostly everyone wants a home that ‘looks’ rich and expensive. Like elsewhere, this has caused residential architecture in Kerala too, to slowly drift away from using the vernacular materials, techniques and thus compromising aspects such as climatic responsiveness, energy efficiency in the due course. The kind of architecture prevailing in the Middle East and Europe where a good majority of Keralites work has also become an influence in defining their taste. Whatever be the style used, the affluent class has the privilege to afford air conditioned, automated systems in their residences, but the rest who lives in the cheaper ,at times smaller scale replicas of those huge mansions don’t. They complain that there is a lack of comfort inside their homes; it’s too hot inside them while they have spent a lion’s share of their savings for them and thus are forced to stay unhappy in their dream-come- true homes.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第2张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

构思
   
这一概念是为了说明,每座建筑都应当拥有自己的灵魂,而不是在外表上看起来像某些经典作品。建筑设计不应当具有阶级性,更重要的是,不论业主的身份地位如何,住宅建筑首先应当拥有简洁的建筑语言,并且能够呼应其所属的场地性质、气候状况、周边建筑材质以及业主的需求。

The Idea
The attempt was to create awareness on the importance of having true- to-self buildings rather than look alike ones. Not that there should be distinction in architecture  for the rich and the poor, the point here is that, whatever be the social status, residential  architecture shall speak the language of simplicity and shall respond to the aspects of the given context of site, climate, vernacular building materials and the end user.

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© Ar Hamid MM

这座建筑的周围都是一些传统的住宅建筑,它们坐落在一个斜坡上,这里是一片橡胶种植园。建筑师尽可能地使建筑与周围环境产生对话,场地毗邻道路,而建筑也邻道路而建。虽然建筑位于农村,但当地交通还是相对发达的,因此建筑的沿街立面仍然需要具有一定的辨识度。在设计中,建筑师需要充分考虑的是如何通过沿街立面的辨识度设计让建筑具有属于自己的灵魂。而这座住宅的造型非常低调,因此设计过程的一个关键点是,在基于不影响建筑使用功能的前提下,如何使一座简朴的家庭住宅从周围一堆“昂贵的外表”中脱颖而出?

Here, the house is subtly placed in a setting where it is surrounded by the kinds of residences which fall to the stereotypes mentioned earlier, over a sloping landscape in a rubber plantation. As part of the deliberate effort to create a dialogue between the building and its passerby’s, the house has been placed closer to the road despite the site being large enough to offer ample frontage. Though rural in setting, considerable traffic passes through the road in the front which connects several adjoining villages offering significant amount of visibility for the building. But the interesting part here was to decide on how to make use of this visibility along with the other primary concerns. To go with a modest, simple looking home amidst an array of the so called ‘expensive looking’ mansions was a crucial point in the whole process and the rest just followed; without compromising the requirements of the client, but not really  an indication of his financial status.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第4张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

客户信息

客户是一位退休的军官,想要和他的妻子及四个女儿在老家的土地上共度安静祥和的家庭生活。同时,这座住宅必须能够容纳两个家庭,首先是他和妻子的居住空间,其次是因为四个女儿平时住在较远的地方,偶尔会回家陪伴父母。

The Client
All that the client, a retired army officer wanted was a simple and peaceful home for his family comprising of his wife and four daughters in his ancestral land. At the same time it had to be house for two: he and his wife alone, and a house for whole of the family, for his daughters are settled at far off places and they come home occasionally.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第5张图片
剖面图/Sections

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© Ar Hamid MM

设计

建筑沿等高线布置,住宅的内部空间分成三层,建筑师设计了一个中央楼梯作为主要的垂直交通枢纽,通过这个楼梯,居住者能够来到建筑的三个不同楼层。在建筑中,建筑师重点设计了室内的动态空间,因此,住宅的公共空间相对灵活,能够按照需求扩大面积。功能元素也对住宅美学起到了促进作用,例如,建筑师运用砖块的巧妙布置代替传统的窗户。

Design
Placed along the contour, the spaces inside the house are placed in three levels connected by a stair which at the same time the vertical circulation element and also offers access points to all the three levels. The spaces are designed keeping in mind the dynamic requirements. Hence, the common spaces are expandable and the rest is kept optimum. Functional elements are actively contributing to the aesthetics of the house, for instance replacing windows with brick jalis.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第7张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

建筑材料主要源于当地的传统材质,如红土砖墙面、陶土屋顶和地板、天然木材等,并采用当地工艺进行设计。在红土砖墙上涂以石灰的做法能够节省造价,因为如果直接将墙面暴露在外,会涉及到相当昂贵的专业技术。

The choice of material has been from vernacular options: laterite bricks for the walls, terracotta tiles for roofing and flooring, natural timber etc. and has been brought into the design using local workmanship. Plastering of the laterite walls was affordable compared to leaving it exposed since it involved technical expertise which was rather very expensive.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第8张图片
底层平面图/Ground Floor Plan

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第9张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

住宅的室内高度符合人体尺度,结构元素直接暴露在外,保留建筑最真实的状态。室内的家具设备都通过居住者的原有旧家具制品改造而成。而建筑的屋顶瓦片也来源于附近拆除的旧建筑。

The interior of the residence is kept minimal, with the structural elements which were left bare purposefully, keeps it true to its own self. Furniture from the client’s old home has been remodeled and used. Also the roofing tiles were brought from a demolished house nearby.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第10张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

不同高度的粘土屋顶能够为建筑保持一定的热量,调节建筑的小气候。除了赤陶土地板与屋顶,建筑立面的Jalis砖块也促进了室内的空气流通,从而增加居住者的舒适性。Jalis砖块的运用也让室内能够充分感受到自然光线的照射。

The clay roofing at varying heights keeps the heat gain (though very less compared to concrete) away from affecting the interiors. Along with the roof, the terracotta flooring, ample air movement ensured through the jalis also adds to the thermal comfort of the house. The jalis also help generate a play of natural light in the interiors at various times of the day.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第11张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

造价因素
   
人们常常认为,造价低廉的建筑一定缺乏吸引力,然而,在这座建筑中,建筑师通过设计方法的优化和材料的精挑细选,以不损害客户的需求为设计前提,尽可能地满足了客户的审美要求,从而更好地证明,在有限的经济预算下,建筑仍然能够具有自己的特色。

The Affordability Factor
The optimization of design, methodology and material selection without compromising the aesthetic appeal as well as the requirements of the client, was the key factor in breaking the notion that all that is affordable is unattractive. This rather was an attempt to prove that affordability is a style of design to smartly bring the best out of it.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第12张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第13张图片
剖面图/Sections

建筑与季节

景观元素的选择来源于周围传统文化及自然环境的影响,包括有当地种植的植物、树木以及现有橡胶种植园。建筑与景观相结合,二者相辅相成,因此,随着季节的变化,建筑也能够呈现出不同的形象。

The House and the Seasons
The choice of landscape elements were derived from the site and its natural setting itself, comprising locally grown plants and trees and the existing rubber plantation in the backdrop. The house being merged to the landscape and placed along the contour blends with it. Thus, with the change in seasons the visual imagery of the house and its setting changes.

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第14张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

夏天当地气候较为干燥,而建筑内部却仍能保持凉爽,在季风期,当地雨水较多,而到了春天,建筑周边则显得郁郁葱葱,一派生机,再到冬天,这里便又充满了浪漫的气息。

The house will look dry from outside during the summer; but inside, it keeps things cool; indicating the wishful wait for the seasons to come. It celebrates the rain in monsoon, blooms with the spring and romances with the morning breezes of the winter.
                     
经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第15张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第16张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第17张图片
© Ar Hamid MM

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第18张图片
场地平面图/Site Plan

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一层平面图/1st Floor Plan

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立面图/Elevations

经济型造价也能创造高性价比住宅第21张图片
立面图/Elevations

建筑设计:ZERO STUDIO
地点:印度
面积:150平方米
项目时间:2017年
摄影:Ar Hamid MM
项目团队:Hamid MM, Hafeef PK, Shabna K, AAshis J, Khadeeja Rasha,Shafeek Ahamed, Nidhin raj KJ
结构工程设计:Diseno Structurals
承包商:Charcoal Constructions
金属制造商:Spark Enterprises
电力&铅制品制造:S.J Group Electricals
园林景观:Landsystems Landscape

Architects: ZERO STUDIO
Location: Mannarkkad, India
Area: 150.0 m2
Project Year: 2017
Photographs: Ar Hamid MM
Project Team: Hamid MM, Hafeef PK, Shabna K, AAshis J, Khadeeja Rasha,Shafeek Ahamed, Nidhin raj KJ,
Structural Engineering: Diseno Structurals
Contractor: Charcoal Constructions
Metal Fabrication: Spark Enterprises
Electrical & Plumbing: S.J Group Electricals
Landscaping: Landsystems Landscape


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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