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让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第1张图片


建筑技术图纸绘制的20种技巧
20 Technical Architecture Drawing Tips

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

在建筑图纸中,技术制图通常被称为“害群之马”。几乎每个建筑师都喜欢画透视图,因为这个过程很有趣,并且很能表达建筑情感。但是技术图纸就不一样了,它的绘制包含了技术、逻辑、理性,不像手绘透视那样的随性,但它却至关重要。

如果你不了解一些技术制图技巧,将对你的设计也会有一定的负面影响。因此为了让你的技术图纸看上去更加专业,小编在这里为大家分享20种制图的小技巧。

以下这些技巧也许会对你先入为主的观念产生一定影响,但它们绝对对你大大有益,其中也包括轴测图、剖面图、平面图,甚至画法几何的绘制。所以来学习一下吧。

The black sheep of all architectural drawing has got to be technical drawing. Everybody loves drawing perspectives, sketches —you know the creative, interesting and expressive part of architectural drawing. But what about the aspects of drawing: the technical, logical, rational part? It might not be as sexy as freehand drawing, but it is just as important.
If you don’t know proper technical drawing skills it will show in your work; your perspectives will look ‘less smart’ and badly proportioned and your designs will lack consistency. So in order to make technical drawings look less cold and more approachable, I’m sharing the best 20 technical drawing tips I’ve come across.
These technical drawing tips might destroy your preconceived notions regarding technical drawing, but they will help you befriend the beast (and also get a lot better at drawing axonometrics, sections, plans, and even descriptive geometry). So sit back, relax, and get a pen and paper to take notes.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第2张图片

Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

1、技术图纸同效果图一样重要

许多人都不喜欢绘制技术图纸,但你可以认真思考其中包含有哪些内容,因为如果你能很好地完成技术图纸,那么对你的整体设计水平的提高也会很有帮助。

2、经常清洗你的绘图板和三角板

肮脏的绘图板和三角板会让你的技术图纸看上去一团糟,因此尽量定期清洗它们。

1. Start seeing technical drawing as important as freehand drawing.
The natural tendency is to completely ignore technical drawing. I suggest that you see it for what it is and start allocating several hours per week to getting better at it! When you get better at technical work, you will improve your overall drawing and design skills.

2. Always clean your triangles and drawing board to keep the smudging to a minimum.
A big no-no for achieving great technical drawings is smudging the sheet and making your drawings look messy and clumsy. You can easily avoid this by always cleaning your triangles.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第3张图片

Pyramid Section Planar Change. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

3、可以在你的三角板上粘贴纸胶带,这样可以减少灰尘

纸胶带其实有很好的清洁作用,只是你要定期记得更换它。这种方法结合方法2一起使用效果更佳。

4、用HB铅笔绘制底图

HB铅笔画出的线条比较轻,并且不易抹去,在底图确定之后你可以再用2B铅笔勾勒描边。

3. Cover your triangles in paper scotch tape – that is going to reduce smudging as well.
Paper scotch tape will remove most grime from your drawing sheet; just remember to change it from time to time. This technique works very well with tip #2.

4. Construct your technical drawings using an HB pencil.
HB gives enough clarity while keeping smudging to a minimum. Use that to your advantage! You can harden the construction lines later using a softer pencil (2B+).

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第4张图片

Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

5、保持耐心!在面对复杂的技术图纸时不要赤急白脸

技术图纸有时需要头脑风暴,首先你要习惯这个过程,这样会为你省去很多麻烦。

6、学会欣赏画法几何的美,并且每天对它说我爱你

画法几何简直是噩梦。但是你要尽量理解并且掌握它,熟能生巧,你也可以搜索一个名为“Technical Drawing 101”的课程,你可以从中学到很多画法几何的细节。

5. See the virtue in patience. Don’t lose your cool when faced with challenging technical drawings.
Technical drawing is famous (or infamous) for being a brain twister. Accept this upfront—trust me, that’s going to save you a lot of hassle and heartache later on. You'll have to do this for a while until you get used to it.

6. Start seeing the beauty in descriptive geometry… and practice descriptive geometry each and every day.
Descriptive Geometry is notorious for being the hardest of all technical drawing types. However, you can understand it and master it with enough practice. Constant practice will get you comfortable with descriptive geometry. Want a quick way to begin? Try this free lesson from my course ‘Technical Drawing 101’. It will teach you everything you need to draw a complex isometric axo with constructed cast shadows.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第5张图片

Pyramid Planar Change Unwrapped Volume. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

7、出色地完成技术图纸,这样有助于提升你的设计水平

这只是一个阶段,一旦你真正掌握之后,你会对技术图纸了如指掌,甚至开始享受绘制的过程。

8、用A2或A1或A0等大图板,不要再用小图板了!

你见过建筑师在制图板前工作的照片么,就是应该那样工作,你应该使用适当的绘图工具,这样才能更精准地绘制图形。

7. Commit to becoming so excellent at technical drawings that you’re able to outsource any part of your designs to drawing them on the drafting board.
This is a stage in itself; once you cross this mental bridge, you will start being less tense about technical drawing and actually start enjoying it!

8. Get a proper A2-A1-A0 drafting board. Stop it with the small A4-A3 drawings.
You know the stereotypical image of the architect working in front of a drafting board? Guess what—you need to become like that. Get the proper drawing tools in order to draw large drawings on a proper-sized drafting board.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第6张图片

Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

9、别啰嗦,连续30天埋头苦画技术图纸

连续30天开始技术图纸的绘制生涯,不要放弃,也许在第十七天你会崩溃,但不要失去信心!

9. Do a 30-day technical drawing challenge. (No excuses!)
Chip away at technical drawing every day for 30 days in a row. Your progress will be obvious! It might get frustrating after day #17, but don’t lose faith!

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第7张图片

Cube Section Planar Change 1. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

10、用虚线绘制图形的后部轮廓

这样你可以让图面看上去干净整洁,而且一目了然,清晰易懂。不同的线型能够表达不同的信息。

10. Use dotted lines to show the back edges of your drawings.
This way you keep your work tidy and clean. And, as a bonus, you make it look smart and elegant as well. Different line types add different kinds of information. And that looks good.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第8张图片

Octahedron Mirror Planar Change. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

11、理解图像的思路与逻辑

理解是一项工作最重要的部分,这才会让你的练习更有意义。

第一步是理解该如何绘制剖面。

11. Understand the principles and thinking behind sections.
Understanding sections is 90% about developing your 3-dimensional vision. This will make more sense as you practice it.
The first step is understanding how to correctly draw sections.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第9张图片

Hexagonal Inclined Prism Sections. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

12、了解至少3种不同的轴测图

轴测图的类型也有多种,它们能够分别表达不同的角度和体量,你可以通过网上的视频来绘制不同的轴测图。

13、知道怎么画十二面体的轴测图和三维投影

你要知道怎么画一些复杂的体量,至少掌握图形的三维投影和轴测图。

12. Know at least three different types of axonometrics.
There are several types of axonometric drawings out there that show the same volume at slightly different angles. I’ve prepared a video for you here, so you can get started with drawing different types of axos ASAP.

13. Know what a dodecahedron is and how to draw it in triple projection and axonometric.
There are several "simple" volumes out there that you need to know how to draw: the dodecahedron is the most approachable of the lot. Start with a triple projection, then axonometric.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第10张图片

Dodecahedron Triple Projection and Isometric. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

14、正投影

三维投影能够表达一个体量的正面、顶面、侧面。如果你熟练使用计算机软件,那么你应该很清楚正视图、顶视图、左视图的概念,那么此时你再用线条将它们画出来,便容易得多。

15、学会解决至少100种画法几何的问题

作为建筑师,你想要变得更聪明、自律、高效吗?那你可以挑战100题的画法几何。

14. Master triple projections.
A triple projection shows a volume from a frontal, top and side view. If you’ve used any computer software, you already are familiar with these concepts from the front, top and side viewport. If you know how to draw the volume line by line, then you’re much better off.

15. Learn to solve 100 Descriptive Geometry Problems
You want to become smarter, more disciplined and faster in your thinking as an architect or designer? Try the ‘100 descriptive geometry problems’ challenge and we'll talk after that.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第11张图片

Complex Prism Unwrapping and Section. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

16、学会花式绘制椭圆的轴测图

椭圆往往是最难绘制的图像之一,多画椭圆对你有好处。

16.  Learn to draw custom ellipses in all types of axonometric drawings.
Ellipses are notoriously hard to draw in a normal axonometrics, so drawing custom ones will help you get better and better.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第12张图片

Cylinder Hexagonal Pyramid Intersection. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

17、培养对画法几何的热情

许多建筑师都不喜欢绘制画法几何,如果你不信,你可以让他们绘制十二面体的空间对角线。但是你需要充满热情地去做那些别人并不喜欢的事,这样才能真正地进步。

你可以在网络上搜索一些绘图教程,从中你可以学到多种轴测图的绘制方式。

17. Develop a passion for solving any descriptive geometry problem you come across.
Most architects just run away from descriptive geometry (Don’t believe me? Try asking one to draw a simple dodecahedron sitting on its spatial diagonal). You need to do what everyone else isn’t doing and become genuinely passionate about learning how to do it yourself.
Here’s a free lesson I want you to try out. It is on drawing a complex axonometric in multiple coordinate systems and will probably melt your brain (it is the most difficult lesson from my beginner course on architectural technical drawing).

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第13张图片

Standard Roofing Exercise. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

18、学会绘制标注图元:立方体、四棱锥、圆柱体、圆锥体、四面体等

通过三维投影和不同类型的轴测方式来绘制图形是很好的选择。那该如何开始呢?你可以先绘制边长均为4厘米的立方体,来绘制它的投影和不同角度的轴测图。

19、了解如何绘制标准的几何形体:正方形、圆形、五边形、六边形


你应该学会绘制平面几何,这在立面和平面设计中很有帮助。同时,你应该了解,熟练掌握多种几何体也能够提高你的设计能力。

18. Know how to draw all the standard primitives: cube, pyramid, cylinder, cone, tetrahedron etc.
Obviously drawing them in triple projection and different types of axonometrics is best. How do you start with that? Pick a standard cube with the length of 4 cm. Go draw a triple projection and 3 different axos of it.

19. Know how to draw all standard geometrical shapes: square, circle, pentagon, hexagon.
Get started with planar geometry. You will use this later for facade and planar studies. Also, as a tip: knowing multiple types of geometry will help you get proportions right for all your designs.

让人又爱又恨的画法几何!这20个小贴士也许会让你爱上它第14张图片

Three Tetrahedra Sphere Tangency. Image Courtesy of Michael Neatu | freehandarchitecture.com

20、无论是在绘制剖面图、技术细部图纸,还是艺术表达,针管笔都是你的最佳伙伴

使用针管笔绘图能够将图纸很好地保存下来。如何通过这些小贴士来提高你的技术图纸绘制水平呢?为了尽快提高,我建议你可以在网上搜索相关的制图课程,例如“Technical Drawing 101”,从中你可以从零基础开始学习,直到掌握一些复杂的轴测图、阴影透视,以及其他的技术图纸。

20. Ink all your best drawings – whether they are sections, technical details, artistic axonometrics etc.
Inking drawings (tracing over them with a liner instead of just leaving them in standard pencil) is the best option out there for preserving them. How do you apply these tips to get better results with your architectural drawing? To get started asap with technical drawing and get consistent results I recommend taking my course on technical drawing called ‘Technical Drawing 101’. It will get you from being a  complete "noobie" with zero spatial vision to being able to draw complex axonometrics, cast shadows and master other architectural technical drawings.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
        
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