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设计好学校的6大关键因素第1张图片


构建好学校:帮助孩子学习的6种方式
Building Better Schools: 6 Ways to Help Our Children Learn

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译
  
你知道,在欧洲大概有6400万欧洲儿童在学校的时间比在家里还长吗?欧洲儿童每年在学校的时间大约是200天,那么,在这样的前提下,我们该如何设计更加健康的课堂、更有成效的学习环境呢?这个问题非常重要,因为这是自上世纪70年代以来欧洲与英国的首次校园革新。对于建筑师和教育者而言,可以应用这样的契机来思考教育建筑的本质,以及物理环境对于学习效率的正面影响。

“每年至少6400万名欧洲儿童和450万名教师在学校花费的时间大约为200天,孩子们在家里所呆时长的70%大约与在学校的1年时间相当。许多研究表明,设计良好的室内校园环境能够有效提升学习效率和孩子的身体健康。”


Did you know that 64 million European children spend more time at school than anywhere else other than their home? European children spend approximately 200 days each year at their primary schools. With this information, how do we go about designing healthier classrooms that create productive learning environments? This question is perhaps more important than ever, as this will be the first time since the 1970s that Europe and the UK will see a boom in the construction and renovation of schools. What a tremendous opportunity this is for both architects and educators to rethink what an educational facility should be and how the physical environment can be designed to have a positive impact on learning.

“More than 64 million European school children and 4.5 million teachers spend around 200 days in school per year. Children spend around 70% of their time indoors corresponding to almost one year indoors throughout their primary school years. Many studies show that a well-designed indoor school environment will promote improved knowledge and learning, as well as children’s health and well-being.”

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新研究

近期,英国萨尔福德大学的Peter Barrett教授及其学校设计专家团队通过研究表明,设计优良的学校能够有效提升孩子们在阅读、写作、数学方面的成绩。

他们在HEAD(Holistic Evidence and Design)项目中进行了研究,大约3766名学生在一个学年中,由于教室的物理区别而产生的学习效果差异大约为16%,简单而言,教室的设计越好,那么孩子们的学习也越好。

New Research
Recent research conducted by Professor Peter Barrett and his team of school design experts at the University of Salford, UK, showed clear evidence that well-designed primary schools can substantially boost children’s academic performance in reading, writing, and math.
Their ground-breaking study, the HEAD Project (Holistic Evidence and Design), concluded that differences in the physical characteristics of classrooms explained 16% of the variation in learning progress over a year for the 3,766 students included in the study. To put it simply, the better designed the classroom, the better children do academically.

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关键设计元素

HEAD项目的研究结果表明,一些元素是改善学习效率的主要因素,分别是:

  • 阳光
  • 室内空气质量
  • 声学环境
  • 温度
  • 教室设计
  • 鼓励

这也是首次证明,在现实生活中,物理学习空间的总体设计对用户的影响是孤立的。在过去,诸如空气质量等特定要素都经过研究,但是现在,在真实的环境中,如何将这些要素集合在一起,似乎还是个非常模糊的概念。

近三年来,HEAD项目的研究人员对来自27所不同学校的153个班级进行了详细研究,并且收集了这些学校学生的学习成绩。

The Vital Design Elements
The findings outlined in the HEAD study reveal that certain design elements are intrinsic to improving learning in the classroom. They are:
  • Sunlight
  • Indoor air quality
  • Acoustic environment
  • Temperature
  • Classroom design
  • Stimulation

This is the first time that clear evidence of the effect on users of the overall design of the physical learning space has been isolated in real life situations. In the past, specific aspects such as air quality have been studied, but how it all comes together for real people in real spaces has, until now, been based on gut-feeling and wishful thinking.
For three years, researchers of the HEAD project carried out detailed surveys of 153 classrooms from 27 diverse schools and collected performance statistics for pupils studying in those spaces.

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感官因素的重要作用

该研究结合了多种感官要素,同时应用多层次统计模型将来自不同因素的教室设计分隔开,这些因素有学生与老师。

在HEAD项目中,研究者探讨了学校设计的3个主要基本特征,这些特征能够证明对于学习效率有着明显影响:

  • “自然因素:光线、温度、空气质量。这些要素影响了至少一半的学习效率。”
  • “教室设计:使用者和空间灵活性,这对学习效率影响占到四分之一。”
  • “鼓励因素:复杂性与色彩,大约也占了四分之一。”

The Importance of Sensory Factors
The study considered a wide range of sensory factors and used multilevel statistical modeling to isolate the effects of classroom design from other factors, such as the pupils themselves and their teachers.

This guide, and the HEAD study on which it is largely based, assesses three primary physical characteristics of school design which have been found to be particularly influential to learning:
  • “Naturalness: Light, temperature and air quality. These elements together account for half the learning impact of a school design”
  • “Classroom design: Ownership and flexibility, accounting for a quarter of the learning impact”
  • “Stimulation: Complexity and color, also accounting for a quarter of the learning impact”

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研究人员在报告中说明,“让人十分惊讶的是,诸如规模、流线、专业设施、游乐设施等全校因素都比不上单独教室的设计重要,因此,每个教室都应该经过精心设计。”

HEAD项目研究了教育项目的实用指南,这些策略将在下文列出,在阅读这些策略的同时,思考一下这些方法是否可以应用于其他建筑之中,从而构成更加优质的医疗场所、工作空间、居住区域等等。

As noted by researchers in the report, "Surprisingly, whole-school factors (e.g. size, navigation routes, specialist facilities, play facilities) do not seem to be anywhere near as important as the design of the individual classrooms. The message is that, first and foremost, each classroom has to be well designed."
Below you will find practical guidelines on how to implement the HEAD findings in your next educational facility project. Whilst reading these guidelines, why not consider how these design principles (for optimal learning outcomes) could also be applied to other types of buildings - creating better healthcare facilities, better workspaces, better living places, etc.

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1、光线

人们都知道,消除“冬季忧郁”的方法便是来到温暖的阳光之下,最好再结合上干净的沙滩和清澈的海水。自然光线和暖色的影响即使是在小范围内也能明确地感受到,更不必说在住宅、办公室、学校等大环境之中。在近期的一项研究[1]中表明,如果说教育建筑会对学生成绩产生影响,那么其中的重要参数便是光线。

1. Daylight
We all know that the best antidote to the ‘winter blues’ is a break to a warmer, sunnier climate, preferably with white sandy beaches and clear blue waters. The reinvigorating effect of natural light and warmth can also be felt on a smaller scale, and in a wide range of environments, from homes and offices to public buildings, schools, and universities. It is perhaps no surprise then, that when a recent study [1] looked at how the physical design of educational buildings affects student's performance, one of the significant individual parameters was lighting.

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光线提升学习效率[2]

  • 学生在良好的光线之中的数学测试效率会提升20%,而阅读测试会提升26%。
  • 室内设计优质的天窗能够提升19%至20%的效率。
  • 比起固定扇,使用可开启扇相会让学生的效率提升7%至8%。

More Daylight Improves Learning [2]
  • Students with the most daylight in their classrooms progressed: 20% faster on math tests / 26% faster on reading tests
  • Students that had a well-designed skylight in their room improved: 19-20% faster than those without a skylight
  • tudents in classrooms where windows could be opened were found to progress:  7–8% faster than those with fixed windows

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提升教室照明状况的方法

  • 在学校和教室设计中,尽量保证白天的光源来自太阳。
  • 应用能够保持高水平日光质量和室外视野的遮阳系统。
  • 着重考虑学校的使用空间,在学生的活动场所尽量应用日光,如果有需要,可以牺牲一些室内光线。
  • 将建筑日光解决方式和整体学校设计相结合,同时将屋顶与立面的优势结合在一起。

Ways to Improve the Daylight Conditions in Classrooms
  • Ensure that daylight is the superior light source for most of the daylit hours during the year when designing schools and classrooms
  • Select solar shading systems that can ensure a high level of daylight quality and maintain views of the outdoors.
  • Concentrate on the schools most utilized spaces – invest in daylight solutions where the students are – and allow slightly darker areas within the room, if needed.
  • Integrate successful architectural daylight solutions in the overall school design, that combines the advantages of windows both in the façade and in the roof.

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那么光线该如何设计呢?
How to Design with Daylight?


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2、室内空气质量

糟糕的室内空气不仅会影响学生的注意力和整体表现,同时还有可能影响学生的身体健康。因此,健康的教室都必须拥有充足的自然通风,这有益于学生的身体健康。

2. Indoor Air Quality
Poor indoor air quality can not only seriously inhibit students’ concentration and overall performance, but can also lead to increased absenteeism due to illness. Adequate ventilation is therefore imperative for healthy classroom design to help students flourish.

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提升教室空气质量的方法

  • 上课时将窗户打开,让空气流通。欧洲的大多数学校都拥有自然通风。
  • 创新的自然通风解决系统,例如控制室自然通风设施,这可以让室内的二氧化碳保持在可控范围。
  • 在冬季,机械通风系统可以维持优质的空气质量,同时不损害热舒适性能。
  • 混合方法可以结合自然通风和机械通风的优势。

Ways to Improve the Indoor Air Quality in Classrooms
  • Open the windows and air out classrooms during lessons. Most schools in Europe have been designed for natural ventilation.
  • Innovative natural ventilation solutions, e.g. demand controlled natural ventilation, it can maintain the CO2 level within the recommended range.
  • Mechanical ventilation systems can ensure an optimum level of air quality without compromising thermal comfort in colder months.
  • Hybrid solutions can combine the advantages of both natural and mechanical ventilation.

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3、声学环境

建筑围护结构的重要功能是隔离室外的不必要噪声。隔音是建筑的重要参数,因为室外的噪声会对学生的健康、情绪、学习能力产生负面影响。人们能够明确地分辨所听到的声音是正面还是负面,不必要的噪音会让人感觉心烦,同时也有害健康。舒适的听觉感知和不受干扰的白噪音对于课堂的交流和学生注意力的集中至关重要。

3. Acoustic Environment
One important function of the building envelope is to protect the interior from unwanted outdoor noise. Sound insulation is an important parameter of building components, as outdoor noise can have negative effects on health, mood, and learning capabilities. Our perception plays an important role in identifying whether it is sound (positive) or noise that we hear. Unwanted noise is irritating or annoying, and in severe circumstance harmful. Comfortable auditory perception and freedom from intrusive background noise are vital for enabling communication in classrooms and allowing students to concentrate.

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4、温度

这就好像Goldilocks和Three Bears的故事那样,教室内的温度不可以过高,也不可以过低,适度最好。

提升教室温度现状的方法

  • 夏天使用的遮阳系统和自然通风设施,能够有效防止室温过高,高温这会降低学习效率。
  • 具有能源效益的机械通风系统和自然通风系统相结合,达到降温的目的。
  • 立面和屋顶开窗的设计,让诸如横向通风、叠加通风的气流穿过室内。
  • 在学校设计中结合使用集成效益遮阳策略,即将空气质量、空气温度、视野、日光等方式结合在一起。

4. Temperature
Just like the bowls of porridge in the well-known fairy tale of Goldilocks and the Three Bears, the temperature in classrooms should neither be too hot, nor too cold, but just right.

Ways to Improve the Indoor Temperature Conditions in Classrooms
  • Use solar shading and natural ventilation in the summer to prevent high indoor temperatures that would reduce learning capabilities.
  • Specify energy-efficient mechanical ventilation with the systematical use of natural ventilation to reach an energy neutral strategy for cooling.
  • Design windows in the façade and the roof to allow efficient airflow across the space (e.g. cross ventilation, stack effect).
  • Integrate effective solar shading solutions in the school design by interrelating air quality, air temperature, view, and daylight with an iterative approach.

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5、教室设计

设计优良的教室能够提升学生们大约16%的学习能力。使用者和空间灵活性对此占有四分之一的影响程度,因此设计师应当从教室设计的角度来看待这些因素。

5. Classroom Design
Well-designed classrooms can improve students’ learning progress by around 16% in a single year. Ownership and flexibility account for a quarter of this learning impact, so let’s take a look at these important factors in terms of classroom design.

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上图展示了教室的灵活特征,其设计灵感来源于名为“聪明的教室”的报告,其中明确定义了学习区域、附属空间、有着明确空间形态的教学区,以及各式各样的教学墙,在教学区当中也充分考虑了学生的方位。

This is an illustration of a classroom with several good features of flexibility, inspired by the Clever Classrooms report: It has defined learning zones, an attached breakout space, an optimum shape with a teaching area relatively close to the furthest students as well as big wall areas for varied display options.

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6、鼓励因素

虽然鼓励因素、色彩、视觉复杂性对于教室的学习环境而言非常重要,但是鼓励的过度和不足之间的平衡点该如何把握呢?

图片: Velux Group

6. Stimulation
While stimulation, color, and visual complexity are important for creating a vibrant learning environment in classrooms, what is the healthy balance between under-stimulation and over-stimulation?

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[1]照明对于欧洲教室性能的影响(2016)C. Maesano、I. Annesi-Maesano, CLIMA 2016,奥尔堡 2016年第十二届RHEVA世界大会
[2] George Loisos于1999年针对橘郡、加利福尼亚、西雅图、华盛顿、柯林斯堡、科罗拉多2000个教室的21000名学生的HESCHONG MAHONE GROUP测试成绩而进行的“加利福尼亚能源效益”项目

[1] Impact of Lighting on School Performance in European Classrooms (2016) C. Maesano and I. Annesi-Maesano, CLIMA 2016, 12th REHVA World Congress 2016, Aalborg.
[2] 1999 by George Loisos for The California Board for Energy Efficiency Program. Submitted by HESCHONG MAHONE GROUP Test score results for over 21,000 students in 2000 classrooms from districts, located in Orange County, California, Seattle, Washington, and Fort Collins, Colorado.

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