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索菲亚王后艺术歌剧院
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía / Santiago Calatrava

由专筑网王雪纯,李韧编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:瓦伦西亚索菲亚王后艺术歌剧院既是瓦伦西亚的主要艺术表演场地,也是充满活力的城市地标,同时还成为了该地区的标志,活跃着该地段。该项目有着一间可容纳1706人的礼堂,适合歌剧表演、音乐会遗迹芭蕾表演,还有着380座的室内音乐厅,则用于音乐会、戏剧和其他诸如讲座会议等用途,另外还有一间可容纳1,520人的礼堂,配备先进的投影设备,可以让人们在特殊的屏幕上观看表演。位于主楼附近的是一间400座小礼堂,这用于表演先锋戏剧、舞蹈,礼堂中还有用于展览画作和装饰艺术的画廊空间。

Text description provided by the architects. The Valencia Opera House is meant to serve as both a major performing arts facility for Valencia and as a dynamic urban landmark, helping to consolidate and animate the area in which it is built. The main components of its program are an auditorium seating 1,706, suitable for opera productions as well as concerts and ballet; a 380-seat chamber music hall for ensemble performances, drama and other events (lectures, meetings, etc.); and an auditorium seating up to 1,520 people, equipped with advanced film and video projection systems, offering the possibility of viewing performances on special video screens. Located adjacent to the main building is a 400-seat auditorium for experimental theater and dance, with gallery space for exhibitions of fine arts and decorative arts.

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瓦伦西亚歌剧院是西班牙这个艺术与科学之城的重要组成元素,剧院由圣地亚哥·卡拉特拉瓦(Santiago Calatrava)设计,位于Turia河已干涸的河床上,占地86英亩(约34.8公顷)。该综合体位于老城区和Nazaret地区之间,旨在成为瓦伦西亚发展滞后地区的新焦点,并将中心城市与大海连接起来。在线型规划发展中,歌剧院与另外几座建筑构成了一个整体,它们分别是遗址西边的歌剧院,到天文馆/ IMAX剧院(半球剧院),最后是东边的Principe Felipe科学博物馆。另一座名为“L'Umbracle”的建筑由散步道和停车库构成,建在一个开放的拱廊内,是冬季花园的现代化改造成果。宽敞的花园和水域将这些建筑连接起来。

The Valencia Opera House is conceived as the final element in the City of Arts and Sciences complex, designed by Santiago Calatrava on an 86-acre site along the dry bed of the Turia River. Situated midway between the old city and the coastal district of Nazaret, the complex is intended by the Generalitat Valenciana to bring new focus to an incoherent and under- developed area of Valencia and to link the center city with the sea. The Opera House is one of three buildings that form an integrated, linear progression: from the Opera House at the western end of the site, to the Planetarium/IMAX Theater (Hemispheric Theater), to the Príncipe Felipe Science Museum at the eastern end. Another structure, known as L’Umbracle, is a promenade and parking garage, built within an open arcade that is a contemporary reinvention of the winter garden. Linking the structures are extensive gardens and bodies of water.

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为了表现歌剧院“以人为本”的设计理念,卡拉特拉瓦还为这座建筑设计了有着独特特征的纪念性雕塑。在形式上,建筑物由一组随意的体块组合而成,并通过两个对称的切割混凝土外壳连接起来而变得统一。这些体块覆盖着钢板,钢板从入口大厅向外轴向伸出,形成建筑的轮廓。这样的结构定义了歌剧院的特征,大大增强了其在景观中的象征和动态效果,同时为下面的阳台和设施提供保护功能。

In recognition of the civic importance of the Opera House, Calatrava gave the building the iconographic character of a monumental sculpture. In form, the building is a series of apparently random volumes, which become unified through their enclosure within two symmetrical, cut-away concrete shells. These forms are crowned by a sweeping steel sheath, which projects axially from the entrance concourse out over the uppermost contours of the curvilinear envelope. The structure that results defines the identity of the Opera House, dramatically enhancing its symbolic and dynamic effect within the landscape, while offering protection to the terraces and facilities beneath.

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建筑物的不同体块水平堆叠在一起,梁则设置在建筑的侧边。主礼堂中全部设置有空调系统,声学装饰嵌入在贝壳状空间内。主要观众席的视觉模块和升降机构也位于中央核心,舞台面积为5,166平方英尺(约479.9平方米)。对于开放表演区域,围绕复合体的屋顶和外墙具有声学功能,为室内音乐厅提供玻璃覆盖的绝缘排练区域。

The different volumes of the building are stacked between horizontal promenade decks, which cantilever off the side of the structure. The central core is occupied by the fully air- conditioned auditorium of the main auditorium, which is set within an acoustically shaped shell embedded within the cluster. Also housed in the central core are the scenery module and lifting mechanisms for the main auditorium, whose stage measures 5,166 square feet. For the open performance areas, the roof and defining walls enclosing the complex have an acoustical function, while a glass-covered, insulated rehearsal area is provided above the chamber music hall.

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建筑物周围的外壳允许人们从外部去往不同的礼堂、花园露台、咖啡厅和餐厅。这些区域通过长廊、阳台、楼梯和外部电梯相连,周边是城市和花园的美景。由于只有在进入礼堂时才需要门票,人们可以在整座建筑物的其他空间内自由移动,使歌剧院成为受欢迎的聚会场所,并使人们更容易享受音乐。
卡拉特拉瓦还为建筑内的主要空间设计了永久性的艺术装饰,包括两个大型壁画和两个陶瓷大型浮雕。

The shell surrounding the building permits peripheral exterior circulation to the different auditoriums, garden terraces, cafeterias and restaurant. These areas are linked by promenade balconies, stairs and exterior elevators, offering beautiful views of the city and the gardens. Because a ticket is required only upon entering an auditorium, the public may move freely throughout the building, giving the Opera House a welcoming character as a gathering place, and making music more accessible to the people.
Calatrava has also designed permanent art installations for major spaces within the building, including two large murals and two large bas relief sculptures in ceramic.

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建筑设计:Santiago Calatrava
地点:西班牙,瓦伦西亚
面积:37000.0 m2
项目时间:2006年
摄影:Palladium Photodesign, Alan Karchmer
项目类别:剧院
客户:Generalitat Valenciana and Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias S.A.

Architects: Santiago Calatrava
Location: Valencia, Spain
Area: 37000.0 m2
Project Year: 2006
Photographs: Palladium Photodesign, Alan Karchmer
Category: Auditorium
Client: Generalitat Valenciana and Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias S.A.

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