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没水没电的极端热带项目怎么做?这个例子不错噢第1张图片

塞内加尔Alioune Diop大学教学大楼
Lecture Building at the Alioune Diop University / IDOM

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:塞内加尔政府在世界银行的财政援助下,决定开始一项雄心勃勃的计划,以改进国内几所大学的综合设施,当地政府委托IDOM建筑事务所负责该项目的设计与监理工作,本次任务主要是为国家西部Bambey大学的1500名学生建造一座全新的教学大楼,其中包括50人及100人的演讲大厅、容纳500人的报告厅、实验室、计算机室,以及教师的办公室,建筑基底面积约4200平方米,场地面积约11500平方米。

Text description provided by the architects. The Government of Senegal, financially assisted by the World Bank, decided to start an ambitious plan to improve several universities in the country, commissioning IDOM to carry out the project and site supervision for a new lecture room building for 1,500 students at the University of Bambey, to the West of the country. The plan includes lecture rooms for 50 and 100 students, a 500 seat lecture hall, laboratories, computer rooms and offices for the teaching body, all distributed over an enclosed built-up area of 4,200 m2 and 11,500 m2 of urbanised area.

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Bambey市位于塞内加尔首都达喀尔西面约120公里处,城市人口约20000人,当地的花生种植与牛群畜牧业十分出名。但恶劣的地理环境与稀缺的城市基础设施及服务功能,使当地的生活状况相对落后。

The city of Bambey, located 120 km west of Dakar and having a population of 20,000, stands out for its peanut and cattle farming. The few urban infrastructures and services are indicative of the poor surroundings and harsh life conditions.

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一些当地特有的制约条件让建筑师不得不开始思考如何通过建筑空间来反映当地的文化特征。一方面,建筑师必须考虑非洲撒哈拉沙漠南部萨赫勒地区的极端气候,这里的全年温度在35℃到45℃之间。每年中有10个月都处于干旱季节,而在7月到9月则是当地的暴雨天气,这样气候转形成了当地干旱和郁郁葱葱的对比鲜明的景观。而另一方面,当地缺乏先进技术与熟练劳动力,同时其资源也十分稀缺。更为重要的是,现有校园并没有污水处理系统,也没有规划合理的道路网络,甚至还缺乏电力水力系统。因此,在这样的环境下,当前的校园建筑无法满足实际所需功能。

Some unusual starting constraints made us reflect on how to deliver a contextualized architectural response. On the one hand, we had to deal with the extreme climate of the Sahel area, with temperatures during the day reaching between 35oC and 45oC during the whole year. For 10 months a year, it is also very dry and between July and September, torrential rain is characteristic, generating a contrasting arid-lush landscape which is unrecognizable between seasons. On the other hand, the shortage of resources in the country is noticeable both in the absence of technology and in the lack of skilled workforce and the limited building maintenance. On top of it all, the existing campus had no sewage system, road network or constant supply of drinkable water or electricity. Lastly, the existing buildings, in very poor conditions, were not in keeping with the expected functionality of a campus.

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针对这些状况,建筑师设计了简约的重复体量,其规模与现有校园相符合,注重实用性功能,同时与周边环境相融合,为抵御极端天气创造了最佳条件。另外,建筑师的设计灵感来源于对学生行为的观察,因此建筑师构思了一个树状空间,这样能够为使用者带来舒适和凉爽,在建筑中,建筑师设计了巨型双层屋顶,其中结合了金属面板和隔热层,内部是矿化纤维天花板,这看上去就如同一棵大树的层层枝干,让空气在空间中流淌。

Faced with these circumstances, we planned to respond with a building both simple and repetitive in its construction, of a scale commensurate to the campus, very practical and integrated into the environment whilst generating optimal conditions for protection against the extreme weather. We found inspiration on campus by observing the behaviour of the students. This led us to the idea of reproducing a great tree as a contributor of shelter, which would offer shade, coolness and comfort to its users without energy consumption. We therefore developed the project from its cross-section, providing the building with a large double roof with a metal sandwich panel and insulation on top and a dropped ceiling of mineralised fibres on the inside. In other words, layers of tree branches, with air flowing in between them.

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对于建筑的南立面,其方案迥然不同,建筑师设计了巨大的格子结构,让内外空间相互渗透,在过滤掉过于强烈的直射日光时,也能保证建筑内拥有充足的自然光线。另外,建筑师在两层立面的空隙之间种植了香茅,这种植物有很好的驱蚊效果,同时也让整个空间看上去充满生机。屋顶上部有约10米长的顶棚,覆盖到室外活动区域,让学生在课间休息时也能感受到丝丝凉意。

For the south façade, the strategy was different: we created a large latticework, permeable to air, which eliminates any solar incidence towards the interior and acts as a great filter of solar radiation, extreme in this environment, but still allowing enough light through for the interior functional needs. We planted citronella grass in the cavity between the two skins to avoid the presence of malaria-bearing mosquitoes and to freshen up the space. Complementary, the roof is extended into a 10 meter long canopy, covering a wide exterior area, sheltering students when not in class.

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双屋顶与双立面之间,分别留有1米和3米的空隙,这样能够有效地产生“文丘里效应”,即让那些集中于外表皮的热量在空隙之中循环流动,然后将多余的热量逐渐消耗。整个系统拥有较高的散热速率,同时在双层表皮的空隙之间还能产生恒定的空气流动。

The combination of both systems, the double roof and a double-skin façade, having 1 and 3 meter cavities respectively, makes it possible to create a Venturi effect: the heat concentrated on the outer skin of the façade ends up flowing under the roof, eased by the inclination of the latter. This system allows for a high percentage of outside heat to be dissipated while at the same time generating a constant flow of air through the cavity of the building’s envelope.

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通过这种生物气候策略,在不消耗多余能源的前提下,室内的温度能够有效地降低10℃,同时还保证了室内充足的自然采光。

The result of applying this bioclimatic strategy has made it possible to reduce the interior temperature by 10 degrees, with no energy consumption and with satisfactory interior sunlight conditions.

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最后要解决的是污水处理问题,建筑师将渗水阀、植物、雨水收集系统,以及活性污泥净化系统结合使用,污水通过活性净化系统之后能够重新排放至渗水阀之中。整个系统与周围环境相适应,同时也是对于自然系统的直接利用,有利于当地植物的生长,并且不需要多余的后期修复与能源消耗。

Finally, to solve the lack of sewage networks problem, we incorporated infiltration rafts with vegetation that collect rainwater as well as an activated sludge purification system for waste water, which, once purified, is discharged to the same rafts. The set of rafts is laid out in keeping with the surroundings, as a natural meander, accessible during the dry season and favouring the natural development conditions of native vegetation, avoiding any attempt of growing vegetation that requires maintenance or consumes water.

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建筑师希望,这个项目能够增大社会的参与性,因此,建筑师设计了由三角形穿孔面板组成的立面模块系统,当地的工人们能够直接在现场进行预制组装。立面所运用的约20000块混凝土砌块通过不锈钢模具手工制作而成,然后再进行干燥处理。南立面的面积约2000平方米,是当地约100名工人历经6个月的劳动成果。

Lastly, we wanted our project to be sensitive to the social component. For this purpose, we designed a façade made up of blocks with triangular perforations that could be prefabricated in situ by the local unskilled workforce. And so, the 20,000 concrete blocks were built manually on site by means of a stainless steel mould and then air-dried. The construction of the 2,000 m2 of the south elevation lattice employed over a hundred workers from Bambey for 6 months.

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建筑设计:IDOM
地点:塞内加尔,班贝
主创建筑师:Javier Perez Uribarri, Federico Pardos Auber
合作建筑师:Beatriz San Salvador Pico
项目推广:塞内加政府 , 高等教育部 - 公共建筑署,世界银行
客户:Alioune Diop de Bambey University
面积:7533.0 m2
项目时间:2017年
摄影:Francesco Pinton
制造商:DAIKIN, MALERBA, DANOSA
IDOM预算:Ana Robles, Joseba Andoni
施工管理:Federico Pardos
项目执行管理:Papa Djibril Kane, Fally Diop
建筑施工:CSE, COMPAGNIE SAHELIENNE D’ENTREPRISES
IDOM结构工程设计:Miguel Angel Corcuera, Fernando López
IDOM基础设施设计:Francisco José Sánchez, Arturo Cabo
IDOM可持续与节能设计:Blas Beristain
IDOM制图人员:Iñaki Zabala
IDOM3D信息图像设计:Fernández de Gamboa, Alfonso Alvarez
塞内加尔合作建筑设计:Alioune Sow
塞内加尔工程设计:Tandakha Ndiaye

Architects: IDOM
Location: Bambey, Senegal
Architects In Charge: Javier Perez Uribarri, Federico Pardos Auber
Collaborator Architects: Beatriz San Salvador Pico
Promotor: Senegal Goverment, Ministry of Higher Education - Public Buildings Construction Agency, World Bank
Client: Alioune Diop de Bambey University
Area: 7533.0 m2
Project Year: 2017
Photography: Francesco Pinton
Manufacturers: DAIKIN, MALERBA, DANOSA
Budget IDOM: Ana Robles, Joseba Andoni
Construction management: Federico Pardos
Work Execution Management: Papa Djibril Kane, Fally Diop
Constructor: CSE, COMPAGNIE SAHELIENNE D’ENTREPRISES
Structural Engineers IDOM: Miguel Angel Corcuera, Fernando López
Facilities Engineering IDOM: Francisco José Sánchez, Arturo Cabo
Architect of Sustainability and Energy Efficiency IDOM: Blas Beristain
Master draftsman IDOM: Iñaki Zabala
3D Infographics IDOM: Fernández de Gamboa, Alfonso Alvarez
Senegal Collaborating architect: Alioune Sow
Engineer Senegal: Tandakha Ndiaye

      
出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
        
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