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Gando教师公寓/ Kéré建筑事务所第1张图片

Gando Teacher's Housing

由专筑网刘政和,杨帆编译

来自建筑事务所的描述。建造这些教师公寓是为了吸引教师到农村进行任教,并将黏土材料推广为可持续和耐用性的建筑材料。这些房子由一系列单元模块组成,类似该地区常见的一种传统圆棚屋。单元模块可以以多种方式组合在一起形成一种更大的建筑体量。这些简单的材料和最小的造价意味着它可以被更多的村民接受。6套分配给教师及其家庭的公寓被安置在学校的南部。这种曲线布局不仅美丽,也能让人联想到当地传统的Burkinabé混合物。屋顶是由土块组成的拱顶架构。这种施工方法充分利用了当地资源和气候。40cm厚的墙壁和花岗岩基础可以保护建筑免受潮气的影响。村民以每天生产600到1000块尺寸为40x20x10cm的砖块的速度共生产了约15000块砖。

From the architect. The teachers' houses were designed to attract teachers out to the countryside, as well as to promote the use of earth as a sustainable and durable building material. The houses were realized as a series of adaptable modules, each of comparable size to the traditional round huts typically found in this region. Single modules can be combined in various ways into a larger composite whole. The simplicity of the design and minimal use of bought materials means that it can easily be adopted by the villagers. The six houses for teachers and their families are arranged in a wide arc to the south of the school complex. This curvilinear layout is not only beautiful but is also reminiscent of a traditional Burkinabé compound. The roofs are barrel vaults constructed from stabilized earth blocks. This construction method, previously unheard of in this region, makes use of local resources and is climatically efficient. To protect the building from rising damp, the 40cm thick adobe walls stand on a foundation of cast in-situ cement and granite stones. The villagers produced around 15,000 blocks, each 40x20x10cm, at a rate of between 600 and 1,000 a day.

Gando教师公寓/ Kéré建筑事务所第2张图片

每个模块中由连接墙壁的梁架构承担屋顶的荷载。屋顶由钢筋混凝土现浇成永久性压缩稳定土块模板。屋顶高度在100cm到150cm之间,它们的镰刀式形状可以为住宅提供通风和光照。大屋顶使墙壁免受潮气侵蚀。项目同时利用该地房屋的传统建造方式,将壤土、蔬菜汁和牛粪混合并将其用于外墙作3cm的抗风化保护层。

A tie beam connecting the walls bears the roof load in each module. The roof is a layer of reinforced concrete poured in situ into a permanent shuttering of compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEBs). The roof heights alternate between 100cm and 150cm, therefore when they overlap a sickle-shaped opening is formed and serves as a means of ventilating the interior and providing daylight. Generous roof overhangs protect the walls from moisture. In traditional Burkinabé houses, a special type of thin loam rendering – mixed with vegetable juice and cow dung – is applied to the outer walls as a protective layer of about 3cm against weathering.

Gando教师公寓/ Kéré建筑事务所第3张图片

Gando教师公寓/ Kéré建筑事务所第4张图片
Plan/平面图

不幸的是,这些组件在雨季的用处并不大,而且会吸引白蚁。在教师住房内,传统的有机组成材料被沥青所取代。建筑夯实的黏土层创造了光滑均匀的表面。Gando人民的热情参与是这个项目成功的关键。村民们不仅获得了新技能,在建筑传统和创新意识方面也增强了责任感,提高了认识。

Unfortunately these components are of little use in the rainy season and attract termites which can eventually destroy the walls. In the teachers' housing, the traditional organic components of the rendering were replaced with bitumen. The culmination of the building work is the tamping of the clay floor to create a smooth, homogeneous surface. The enthusiastic involvement of the people of Gando was the key to the success of this project. The villagers gained not only new skills but also a sense of responsibility, awareness and sensitivity to both the traditional and the innovative aspects of building.

Gando教师公寓/ Kéré建筑事务所第5张图片

Gando教师公寓/ Kéré建筑事务所第6张图片

Gando教师公寓/ Kéré建筑事务所第7张图片
Section/剖面图

•        建筑设计:Kéré Architecture
•        地点:Burkina Faso
•        建筑面积:930 平方米
•        项目时间:2004年
•        摄影:Erik-Jan Ouwerkerk
•        客户:Schulbausteine fuer Gando / Gando Village Community

•        Architects: Kéré Architecture
•        Location: Burkina Faso
•        Area: 930.0 sqm
•        Project Year: 2004
•        Photographs: Erik-Jan Ouwerkerk
•        CLIENT: Schulbausteine fuer Gando / Gando Village Community


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